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stringed musical instrument of ancient origin, the strings of which are plucked with the fingers. Harps were found in paintings from the 13th cent. B.C. at Thebes. In different forms it was played by peoples of nearly all lands throughout the ages. The harp was particularly popular with the Irish from the 9th cent. They adopted the small instrument still in use, called the Irish harp, as a national symbol. The larger instrument was well known on the Continent by the 12th cent. During the 15th cent. the harp came to be made in three parts, as it is today: sound box, neck, and pillar. The strings are stretched between the sound box and the neck; into the neck are fastened the tuning pegs. Chromatic harps, having a string for each tone of the chromatic scale, have appeared since the late 16th cent., but none has been as practical as the diatonic harp, made in the late 17th cent. in the Tyrol and equipped with hooks capable of altering the pitch of any string by a semitone. A pedal mechanism that shortened the strings was devised (c.1720) in Germany. The harp was perfected with Sébastien Érard's invention (c.1810) of the double-action pedals, which can shorten each string twice, raising the pitch by a semitone or a tone. The harp appeared occasionally in the orchestra in the 18th cent., but its regular inclusion there, as well as most of its solo literature, dates from the late 19th cent.


See R. Rensch, The Harp (1970) and Harps and Harpists (1989).

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A metal device fitted into the socket of a lamp that holds a lampshade.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved


1. a large triangular plucked stringed instrument consisting of a soundboard connected to an upright pillar by means of a curved crossbar from which the strings extend downwards. The strings are tuned diatonically and may be raised in pitch either one or two semitones by the use of pedals (double-action harp). Basic key: B major; range: nearly seven octaves
2. an informal name (esp in pop music) for harmonica
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Despite its potent proinflammatory properties, ANGPTL2 also exerts noninflammatory responses in various target organs.
Another target organ in which ANGPTL2 may exert responses other than inflammation is the kidney.
Another property of ANGPTL2 is its prooxidant capacity.
ANGPTL2 displays other deleterious properties, such as activation of metalloproteinases, leading to extracellular matrix degradation that could contribute to abdominal aortic aneurysm and deleterious arterial remodelling [56].
Finally, another property of ANGPTL2 indirectly related to inflammation is its potential capacity to contribute to cellular senescence.
ANGPTL2 activates molecular pathways where the integrin [alpha]5[beta]1/Rac1/NF[kappa]B-dependent pathway seems to play a key role in a multitude of cell types and pathologies.
Altogether, these multiple properties of ANGPTL2 raise the following questions: does circulating ANGPTL2 play any roles in the local cellular microenviroment, and if so, how?
Does an Increase in Circulating Levels of ANGPTL2 Measured in a Well-Defined Chronic Medical Condition Originate from a Specific Cell Type?
It is very unlikely that elevated circulating levels of ANGPTL2 are a biomarker of a specific disease.
In conclusion, the clinical prognostic value of abnormal ANGPTL2 circulating levels should be confirmed and ANGPTL2 could then be included in the routine blood biochemical marker panel in association with the inflammatory marker hsCRP, the cardiac marker NT-proBNP or tumour markers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen19-9 (CA19-9).
Endo et al., "The secreted protein ANGPTL2 promotes metastasis of osteosarcoma cells through integrin alpha5beta1, p38 MAPK, and matrix metalloproteinases," Science Signaling, vol.