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ani(ä`nē), bird: see cuckoocuckoo,
common name for members of the extensive avian family Cuculidae, including the ani and the roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus), widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions.
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a castle and fort of medieval Armenia, on the right bank of the Akhurian (Arpachai) River; in Kars Vilayet in Turkey. In the fifth to eighth centuries it was the possession of the Kamsarakan princes and later of the Bagratids, under whom Ani became the capital of the Ani kingdom (from 961). In the tenth to 13th centuries, Ani was the largest economic, political, and cultural center of Armenia. It was seized in 1045 by Byzantium and in 1064 by the Seljuks, who laid waste to it. In 1199, together with a part of northern Armenia, Ani became part of the Georgian kingdom. Around the turn of the 13th century it underwent a renewed flowering. In 1236 it was taken by the Mongols and destroyed; from the 14th century it lost its significance. In the 16th century Ani is mentioned as a village. In 1878 it was annexed to Russia, and after World War I it passed to Turkey.
Ruins of Ani, which was one of the most important centers of Armenian architecture of the tenth to 14th centuries, have been preserved. The ruins of a palace, hotels, cathedrals, and other constructions and of city blocks were discovered during excavations in 1892–93 and 1904–16. Among the valuable monuments were remains of thick fort walls with towers (989), which had been repeatedly built up and fortified during the 11th to 13th centuries; a magnificent cathedral (989–1001; with a cupola-type, three-aisled basilica) and the circular, tiered Church of Gregory (Gagikashen; 1001–10), built by the architect Trdat; the exquisite multiapse concentric Church of Abugamrents (the Church of Gregory; second half of the tenth century), the Church of the Savior (1036), and the Church of the Shepherdess (11th century [?]); the Cathedral of Ripsime of the Devichii Monastery (13th century); the Church of Tigran Onents (1215) of the type of a cupola hall with carved ornamentation and frescoes; the gavit (church entrance) of the Church of the Apostles (13th century), with a flat stone mosaic ceiling; and the palace of the paron (12th-13th centuries). A unique round statue of King Gagik I, holding a model of the church (the model was not preserved), was found in the Gagikashen Church.
REFERENCESMarr, N. Ia. Ani: Knizhnaia istoriia goroda i raskopki na meste gorodishcha. Leningrad-Moscow, 1934.
Arutiunian, V. Gorod Ani. Yerevan, 1964.
ANI(1) See animated cursor.
(2) (Automatic Number Identification) A telephone service that transmits the billing number (BN) and the telephone number of the incoming call. ANI identifies the calling party for toll call billing and enables the call to be routed to the appropriate long distance service provider. ISDN supports ANI by carrying the calling telephone number in the D channel. ACD systems use the billing number to query a database and retrieve the customer's records. See Caller ID, ACD and CNAM.