In Figure 6-a, we can see some decrease in the PDR for BADOV and standard AODV
, as the effect of black hole attacks from a malicious node.
The nodes use TinyOs operating system, and the routing layer uses ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing protocol (AODV
Figure 15 shows the values of DANLT product for seven node distribution patterns for various routing algorithms of AODV
, DSDV, LEACH, and HETRA with TCP/EXP as the congestion control algorithm.
Figures 5 and 6 show that the average localization delay of the algorithm is 0.00021, the system overhead is 4.8, while the AODV
and system overhead are 0.00033 and 7.7, respectively.
Some of examples on demand routing protocols are: DSR , , AODV
, and TORA , .
Section 3 talks about the proposed improved algorithm which is based on the original algorithm AODV
. Section 4 shows the results of simulation experiments obtained by using NS2 emulator, and analyzes the experimental results.
DYMO is considered as a successor to the AODV
3, this simulation experiment showed us that AODV
, DYMO and LAR protocols are having higher end to end delays than others, indicating that the speed of simulation in large scale networks will be affected by this.
Therefore protocols which are capable of finding multiple paths ie., AODV
, TORA, DSR, have an advantage.
The NAL methods are implemented over AODV
routing protocol to evaluate the effectiveness.