aria

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aria

(är`ēə), elaborate and often lengthy solo song with instrumental accompaniment. In the 16th cent. it was a melody improvised over a strophic bass line, and a distinction was made between instrumental, vocal, and dance arias. the use of the term to indicate instrumental music was continued by such composers as Froberger, Pachelbel, and J. S. Bach. The first use of the term to indicate solo song was by Giulio Caccini in 1602. Later in the 17th cent. Italian operaopera,
drama set to music. Characteristics

The libretto may be serious or comic, although neither form necessarily excludes elements of the other. Opera differs from operetta in its musical complexity and usually in its subject matter.
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 composers developed the aria da capo, a throughcomposed (nonstrophic) three-part structure in which the beginning section is repeated after a contrasting middle section. Though this formal scheme was first used by Monteverdi, he did not designate it aria da capo. This type achieved artistic perfection in the operas of Alessandro ScarlattiScarlatti, Alessandro
, 1660–1725, Italian composer. He may have studied with Carissimi in Rome, where his first opera was produced in 1679. In 1684 he went to Naples as master of the royal chapel and there composed operas for the royal palace and chamber music for the
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 and Handel and in the works of J. S. Bach. In the 18th cent. the three main sections were divided into subsections, and there were classifications of many various types of arias. The extreme convention of using as many types as possible, but never the same type in succession, developed in the Neapolitan opera, and the subsequent formal rigidity led to a decline of the aria da capo. Later in the 18th cent. prominent virtuoso singers, seeking a means for technical display, caused the development of a type consisting in reality of two separate arias, the first usually dramatic and the second lyrical. Most of the arias of Mozart are of this kind. But in French operas, especially those of Christoph W. von GluckGluck, Christoph Willibald von
, 1714–87, German-born operatic composer. Gluck revolutionized opera by establishing lyrical tragedy as a unified vital art form. He studied music at Prague and later in Italy with G. B. Sammartini.
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, there was a development leading to greater similarity of recitative and aria, which eventually culminated in the complete abandonment of arias in the late operas of Richard WagnerWagner, Richard
, 1813–83, German composer, b. Leipzig. Life and Work

Wagner was reared in a theatrical family, had a classical education, and began composing at 17.
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, who substituted a highly melodic recitativerecitative
, musical declamation for solo voice, used in opera and oratorio for dialogue and for narration. Its development at the close of the 16th cent. made possible the rise of opera.
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 called Sprechgesang [Ger.,=speech-song]. The form continued to be preferred by Italian opera composers, however, and the romantic aria reached its height in the works of Giuseppe VerdiVerdi, Giuseppe
, 1813–1901, foremost Italian composer of opera, b. Le Roncole. Verdi, the son of an innkeeper, showed a precocious talent for the organ but was refused entrance to the Milan Conservatory as having been inadequately trained.
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.

aria

an elaborate accompanied song for solo voice from a cantata, opera, or oratorio
References in periodicals archive ?
In a second allegation, Emma Daly, the head of communications at Human Rights Watch, told The Washington Post in an interview Tuesday that Arias groped her in 1990, when she was a reporter covering Central America and while he was still president.
Arias stole the identities of at least four retired or semi-retired physicians, then used the physicians' information to create bank accounts, according to government accounts of the case given in court pleadings.
Arias has won 32 caps for his country, the first of which came in a 2-1 win against Paraguay in 2013.
After the judge declared a mistrial Thursday, jurors said that Arias lacked remorse and that her attorneys presented an inaccurate portrayal of Alexander's life.
Since the original jury couldn't reach a decision on the penalty, now it is up to Arizona prosecutors to decide if there will be another penalty phase of the trial, with a new jury, or if the option of death by lethal injection would be completely dismissed, with Arias left to face the rest of her mortal life behind bars.
A .25 auto was reported stolen from the home of Arias' grandparents a month before the killing.
Arias had earned $525,000 last season, and the amount was the midpoint between what the team had offered and Arias had sought in salary arbitration.
She also uses her voice to good effect in expressive arias particularly, while her coloratura, secure as always, sounds increasingly natural, free and finely etched.
The two soloists from the Bolshoi Opera put everything into their arias on Thursday from Tchaikovsky's opera Eugene Onegin, singing - and acting - their hearts out.
The immediate cause of former minister Rodrigo Arias' woes is a phone call he made, after receiving a subpoena to be questioned as a suspect in an investigation of alleged embezzlement, and the events that followed, including the suspension of the questioning.
In an official ceremony in November 2008, Arturo Arias received a prestigious gold medal as he was honored with the Guatemalan National Prize in Literature.
ANKARA, Nov 26, 2009 (TUR) -- President of Costa Rica, Oscar Arias, said Wednesday today was not the day to segregate individuals based on color, race or nationality.