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Related to ARNTL: BMAL1


spasm, involuntary rigid muscle contraction, often persistent and often accompanied by pain. It usually has some underlying physical cause such as disease, strain, or injury to the muscle or nearby tissues, impairment of circulation, or a disturbance of body chemistry. The spasm may be confined to one group of muscles or it may be severe and fairly generalized, as in convulsions. Painless localized spasms are called tics. These purposeless movements, usually of some part of the face, may begin as purposeful movement in response to some stimulus but eventually are carried out automatically, apparently without reason. They may disappear spontaneously after a time, or may require the elimination of some physical or psychic cause.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an involuntary muscular contraction; a form of hyperkinesia. A tic may be related to the effect of encephalitis on parts of the brain; it may be a congenital pathological condition, frequently associated with a neuropathic personality; it may appear with attacks of trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux); or it may result from neuritis of the facial nerve. A distinction is made between generalized tics, involving all the muscles, and local tics, which are more common. The muscles usually affected are those of the face and neck. The twitching resembles such voluntary movements as winking, frowning, lip-smacking, or lip-licking. Tics generally disappear during sleep and become more severe under emotional stress. Treatment consists of the administration of sedatives, tranquilizers, and anticonvulsants.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


spasmodic twitching of a particular group of muscles
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


(Token Ring Interface Card) Slang for a Token Ring NIC (network interface card). See token ring network.
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References in periodicals archive ?
However, it was not until we used the automated pipeline that we realized that the Melibe sequence that we had identified as a putative BMAL1 or CYCLE ortholog actually fell out with noncircadian ARNTL proteins.
Primers were designed against the following genes: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (ARNTL or Bmal1), period 2 (Per2), period 1 (Per1), nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group D member 1 (NR1D1 or Rev-ErbA[alpha]), and SRY (sex determining region Y)-Box 2 (Sox2) (primer sequences are listed in Table 1).
AhR/ARNT and the clock proteins (circadian locomotor ourpur cycles kaput; CLOCK) and BMAL1 [brain, muscle ARNT-like protein 1; also called Arntl (aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like)] share structural similarities and exhibit diurnal changes in multiple tissues (Richardson et al.
In nocturnal animals, the transcription factors CLOCK (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput) and BMAL1 (brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 1; official symbol: ARNTL) bind to E-box promoter elements during the night, to drive the expression of three Per (period 1-3) and two Cry (cryptochrome 1/2) genes.