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McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Vostochnyi Arpachai), a river in the Armenian SSR and Nakhichevan ASSR; left tributary of the Araks. Length,

128 km; basin area, 2,630 sq km. Rises on the slopes of the Zangezur Range, flowing through an intermontane depression in its middle course. The waters of the Arpa are used for irrigation; as a result, the Arpa does not reach the Araks in the summer. The health resort of Dzhermuk is located on the river’s upper course. Construction of a tunnel (48.6 km) to divert the waters of the Arpa into Lake Sevan began in 1970.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


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(Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork) The research network funded by the U.S. Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) that was the precursor to the Internet. The project was conceived in 1966 by ARPA employee Robert Taylor, who wanted to share information among researchers at major universities.

The software was developed by Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN), and Honeywell 516 minicomputers were the first hardware used as packet switches. ARPAnet was launched in 1969 at two University of California campuses, the Stanford Research Institute and the University of Utah.

In late 1972, the ARPAnet was demonstrated at the International Conference on Computers in Washington, DC. This was the first public demonstration of packet switching.

TCP/IP Was Added
Over the next decade, ARPAnet spawned other networks, and in 1983 with more than 300 computers connected, its protocols were changed to TCP/IP. In that same year, the unclassified military MILNET network was split off from ARPAnet.

It Became the Internet
As TCP/IP and gateway technologies matured, more disparate networks were connected, and the ARPAnet became known as "the Internet" and "the Net." Starting in 1987, the National Science Foundation began developing a high-speed backbone between its supercomputer centers. Intermediate networks of regional ARPAnet sites were formed to hook into the backbone, and commercial as well as non-profit network service providers were formed to handle the operations. Over time, other federal agencies and organizations formed backbones that linked in.

The Big Shift
In 1995, commercial Internet service providers took control of the major backbones, and the Internet grew exponentially. See Internet and packet switching.

Humble Beginnings
Scrawled on this paper in 1969 were the first four nodes of the ARPANET. Little did they realize these four nodes would grow to millions. (Image courtesy of The Computer History Museum,


(Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) The U.S. military agency responsible for technology projects. Founded as the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in 1958, it was renamed DARPA in 1972, then back to ARPA in 1993 and once again back to DARPA in 1996. DARPA is a small agency that assumes the role of "technological engine" for the Department of Defense and is involved in evaluating future systems. Over the years, DARPA has made huge contributions to information technology. See ARPAnet.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Final results of ANNs application for testing datasets Model name Desired values [K.sub.e] a[K.sub.e] [V.sub.y] [X.sub.y] (deg.) (deg.) (KN) (m) 4f3s3.5l4b3r 61.19 5.39 257.68 0.08 6f2s4l4b4r 56.40 10.32 222.28 0.13 5f2s4.5l4b4r 54.19 11.65 231.01 0.12 MARPE (%) Model name Predicted values by ANNs [K.sub.e] a[K.sub.e] [V.sub.y] [X.sub.y] (deg.) (deg.) (KN) (m) 4f3s3.5l4b3r 60.19 6.09 234.83 0.10 6f2s4l4b4r 57.53 11.40 220.66 0.16 5f2s4.5l4b4r 54.71 11.96 249.27 0.13 MARPE (%) Model name ARPE (%) 4f3s3.5l4b3r 1.64 13.06 8.87 25.86 6f2s4l4b4r 1.99 10.48 0.73 18.25 5f2s4.5l4b4r 0.96 2.67 7.90 9.88 MARPE (%) 1.53 8.74 5.83 18.00
Arpe, "Industrial Organic Chemistry," Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany (2003).
Los tres principales metodos de produccion a gran escala son los procesos petroquimicos, los basados en quimica del carbon y los electroquimicos (Weissermel y Arpe, 1993).
These retail and food service exports are managed by the company's new foreign distributor sales department, which is headed by Giampaolo Arpe, Lavazza's export manager.
General manager at their hotel base, Jens Arpe, said: "When the Vilnius party checked in, the players did look a little strained.
Kaouane a Uu[c]voquUu[c] la "progression" enregistrUu[c]e dans le processus de mise en place de lae1/4aoAutoritUu[c] de rUu[c]gulation de la presse Uu[c]crite (ARPE), soulignant que le fichier des journalistes a Uu[c]tUu[c] "assaini" et que "tout est prUuo"t" sur le plan institutionnel pour la mise en place de cette AutoritUu[c].
Welfare provisions have been cut everywhere: the European Union's ambitious targets for combating poverty and achieving social inclusion are self-delusive because of the constraints faced by the Member States on the periphery, which were hardest hit during the crisis and are no longer in a position to ensure even a minimum level of social inclusion (Arpe et al.
Sembra che per dar tregua ai nostri mali la Patria ci mandi la massima delle sue arpe, il piu numeroso dei suoi strumenti: l'orchestra delle orchestre, condotta da un condottiere prode che i nostri antichi avrebbero chiamato il Sinfoniaco, come quegli che su le navi armate batteva il ritmo di battaglia.
'I will meet with Matteo Arpe and Marcello Messori in coming days,' he said, adding that he will exit from the bank if his list of candidates does not win enough seats on the board of Popolare di Milano.
Private sector schemes include the Allocation de Remplacement pour l'Emploi (ARPE) and the Allocation Chomeurs Ages (ACA), which are financed by UNEDIC, and the Allocation Speciale du Fonds National pour l'Emploi (ASFNE).