The mitochondrial electrochemical gradient, or proton motive force ([DELTA][p.sub.m]), is generated through the electron transport chain and used by the ATP synthase
to produce ATP.
(2010) ATP synthase
: from single molecule to human bioenergetics.
Upregulated proteins ranged from enzymes of TCA cycle to subunits of complex I and ATP synthase
. It was well known that mitochondrial ATP synthase
catalyzes ATP synthesis.[sup] It included two complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, F0, which comprises the proton channel.
In this study, we have demonstrated increasingly severe MTD in the UUO model, manifested swollen mitochondria, together with decreased mtDNA, ATP synthase
, and ND1.
MI component Inhibitor Complex I Rotenone Complex II Atpenin A5 Complex III Antimycin Complex IV Na cyanide ANT Carboxyatractyloside ATP synthase
Oligomycin Pi transporter Mersalyl Sum 1, 3-7 Total (NADH) Sum 2-7 Total (succinate) MI component Range of inhibitor concentration HCC Complex I 1-100 nM 0.56 Complex II 0.1-6 [micro]M 0.12 Complex III 1-200 nM 0.68 Complex IV 0.1-40 [micro]M 0.31 ANT 1-200 nM 0.28 ATP synthase
1-600 nM 0.25 Pi transporter 1-200 [micro]M 0.43 Sum 1, 3-7 2.08 Sum 2-7 2.07 MI component FCC Control colon tissue (mucosa) HBC Complex I 0.45 0.46 * Complex II 0.13 0.28 Complex III 0.66 0.54 * Complex IV 0.50 0.74 * ANT 0.97 1.02 * ATP synthase
0.24 0.61 * Pi transporter 0.53 0.60 * Sum 1, 3-7 2.82 3.36 Sum 2-7 3.03 3.78 Note: * from .
Other identified spots included gelsolin, vimentin, gamma enolase, ATP synthase
and cytoskeletal protein.
* Complex V (ATP synthase
) is the last enzyme utilized in oxidative phosphorylation.
Specifically, the team found that blocking the action of the mitochondrial ATP synthase
enzyme stalled egg cell development from stem cells in experiments in fruit flies, one of the main organisms used to study cell biology.
[3.] von Meyenburg K, Jorgensen BB, Nielsen J, Hansen F (1982) Promoters of the atp operon coding for the membrane-bound ATP synthase
of Escherichia coli mapped by Tn10 insertion mutations.
In this review we will focus on biological nanomotors, particularly ATP synthase
. Biological nanomotors are incredible molecular machines which drive fundamental processes of life.
is an enzymatic complex (about 600 kDa) responsible for ATP synthesis in mitochondria, prokaryote membranes, and chloroplasts.
Consistent with changes in Calvin cycle, three other important proteins involved in electron transport chain (fourth subgroup) such as, ATP synthase
a subunit (spot 21, 2.7-fold), rieske protein (FeS, spot 24, 2.4-fold), and ferredoxin-NADP reductase (FNR, spots 8 and 38, 2.4- and 1.7-fold) were significantly enhanced only under 100 [micro]M As treatments.