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adenosine triphosphate

adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (ədĕnˈəsēn trīˌfŏsˈfāt), organic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of proteins. It is broken down by hydrolysis to yield adenosine diphosphate (ADP), inorganic phosphorus, and energy. ADP can be further broken down to yield adenosine monophosphate (AMP), additional phosphorus, and more energy. When the phosphorus and energy are immediately used to drive other reactions, such as the synthesis of uridine diphosphate (UDP), an RNA precursor, from uridine monophosphate (UMP), the pair of reactions are said to be coupled. New ATP is produced from AMP using the energy released from the breakdown of fuel molecules, such as fats and sugars.

Extracellularly, ATP has been found to act as a neurotransmitter. ATP receptors are widespread through the body. On its own it is known to have effects in the arteries, intestines, lungs, and bladder. It is also often released in tandem with other neurotransmitters, perhaps to add chemical stability. See phosphorylation.

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McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
ATPs have an ethical responsibility when using data that has been collected on-farm or through a data warehouse.
Policy between ATPs and producers on the collection and ownership of data needs to be more transparent.
* Collection, Access and Control: An Agriculture Technology Provider's (ATP) collection, access and use of farm data should be granted only with the affirmative and explicit consent of the farmer.
* Third-party access and use: Farmers and ranchers also need to know who, if anyone, will have access to their data beyond the primary ATP and how they will use it.
* Liability & Security Safeguards: The ATP should clearly define terms of liability.
The discrete quantity of entropic energy that a quantum of space assumes when it becomes electron depends on the features of the region in exam, on the situation existing in that particular region of ATPS (namely on the type of interaction, "potential" to which the region of ATPS is subjected).
the ambient situation existing in ATPS represented by the Coulomb field created by a proton, can be seen as the result of the interaction of entropic energy, given by one of the eigenvalues of the energetic spectrum [E.sub.n] = - 1/2 [m.sub.e] [e.sup.4]/[[??].sup.2] [n.sup.2] (where me is the mass of electron and n is an integer positive number), with one quantum of space.
Kieran Daly, editor of the internet news service Air Transport Intelligence, said: "The ATP was rather an old design which is now showing its age."
While QS vibrating at the basic frequency 0.19x[10.sup.-44][s.sup.-1] have energy in the "non entropy state" (and therefore constitute t "empty" ATPS, where matter is absent), QS vibrating at appropriate frequencies (lower than the basic one) assume energy in the "entropy state" and become so material quanta, endowed by mass and therefore perceivable by our senses.
It's the vibration of QS of ATPS at appropriate frequencies, lower than the basic one, that make such QS material particles, endowed with an energy in the "entropy-state," able to modify their state.
The contract is already operational and British World will use a twin-engine British Aerospace ATP quick-change aircraft providing up to 6.5 tonnes of cargo capacity on the route.