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(ĕks-lä-shäpĕl`), or

Bad Aachen

(bät ä`khən), city (1994 pop. 246,570), North Rhine–Westphalia, W Germany, near the Belgian and Dutch borders. One of the great historic cities of Europe, it is now chiefly important as a rail and road hub and as an industrial center. Almost every branch of the iron and steel industry is represented in the area. Its manufactures include textiles, electrical goods, food (chocolate and candy), glass, machinery, rubber goods, metal products, and furniture. The city's hot mineral baths, frequented by the Romans in the 1st cent. A.D., are still used to treat gout, rheumatism, and skin diseases. Aachen is the site of a technical university and numerous other educational institutions. There are several cultural institutions, notably the Ludwig Art Forum, which exhibits modern art.

Charlemagne, who was probably born in Aachen in 742, made the city his northern capital and the leading center of Carolingian civilization. He built a splendid palace and founded the great cathedral, which contains his tomb. The cathedral, which has an octagonal nucleus modeled on the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy, received extensive Gothic additions in the 14th–15th cent. From 936 to 1531, German kings were usually crowned at Aachen. Treaties ending the War of DevolutionDevolution, War of,
1667–68, undertaken by Louis XIV for the conquest of the Spanish Netherlands. On her marriage to Louis, Marie Thérèse, daughter of Philip IV of Spain, had renounced her rights of inheritance in return for a large dowry.
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 (1668) and the War of the Austrian SuccessionAustrian Succession, War of the,
1740–48, general European war. Causes of the War

The war broke out when, on the strength of the pragmatic sanction of 1713, the Austrian archduchess Maria Theresa succeeded her father, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, as ruler
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 (1748) were signed there (see Aix-la-Chapelle, Treaty ofAix-la-Chapelle, Treaty of
. 1 Compact of May 2, 1668, that ended the French invasion of the Spanish Netherlands (see Devolution, War of). France kept most of its conquests in Flanders; Cambrai, Aire, Saint-Omer, and the province of Franche-Comté were returned to
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). It was occupied (1794) by French troops and later annexed (1801) by France. It passed to Prussia in 1815. At the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1818) Czar Alexander I of Russia unsuccessfully proposed that the Holy AllianceHoly Alliance,
1815, agreement among the emperors of Russia and Austria and the king of Prussia, signed on Sept. 26. It was quite distinct from the Quadruple Alliance (Quintuple, after the admission of France) of Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia, arrived at first in
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 be tightened. From 1918 to 1930 the city was occupied by the Allies as a result of Germany's defeat in World War I. During World War II approximately two thirds of Aachen was destroyed by aerial bombardment, and the city was the first major German city to fall (Oct., 1944) to the Allies.

References in periodicals archive ?
ALEMANIA AACHEN have made significant progress in the last three seasons and the newly promoted Bundesliga side should be backed to pose a stern test for Bayer Leverkusen at the BayArena this afternoon.
This was a huge boost for the club and for the city of Aachen.
Her fiance's mother Ramana Simon told police she dropped off Louise, of Queens Road, Broadstairs, at Aachen railway station.
With only three scores in each round to count, the British team, who had not won in Aachen since 1994, emerged victorious with zero, four faults ahead of the strong German side.
The annual Aachen Colloquium has grown to become one of the world's leading conferences on automobile and engine technology, and organizers anticipate that it will be embraced in the China market.
During the three week study-trip the 15 students are studying the German language at the Language Centre of the university, they will meet German students and professors from RWTH Aachen University and discover the city of Aachen and its neighbouring regions.
A welcome party was held at Siddal RLFC where old friendships were renewed and new ones created among the younger people from Aachen, a spa town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, and Halifax.
Speakers from Apollo Tyres, Ford Motor, Goodyear Tire & Rubber, Tyre Industry Research, Deutsche Institut fur Kautschuktechnologie, Ford Research, Fraunhofer ITWM, Harburg-Freudenberger Maschinenbau, Porsche, Volkswagen and the IKA and IKV institutes at RWTH Aachen University will take part in this conference.
RWTH Aachen University will integrate an MTS Non-Torque Loading (NTL) System and GE Prime Mover into its new 4MW (megawatt) Center for Wind Power Drives (CWD).
During the workshop, 17 GUtech students and 13 RWTH Aachen Master's students exchanged their ideas regarding the development of a multiple purpose area in the center of the city of Aachen.
In conjunction with the colloquium, there will be an accompanying specialist exhibition at the Eurogress Aachen.