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(ĕks-lä-shäpĕl`), or

Bad Aachen

(bät ä`khən), city (1994 pop. 246,570), North Rhine–Westphalia, W Germany, near the Belgian and Dutch borders. One of the great historic cities of Europe, it is now chiefly important as a rail and road hub and as an industrial center. Almost every branch of the iron and steel industry is represented in the area. Its manufactures include textiles, electrical goods, food (chocolate and candy), glass, machinery, rubber goods, metal products, and furniture. The city's hot mineral baths, frequented by the Romans in the 1st cent. A.D., are still used to treat gout, rheumatism, and skin diseases. Aachen is the site of a technical university and numerous other educational institutions. There are several cultural institutions, notably the Ludwig Art Forum, which exhibits modern art.

Charlemagne, who was probably born in Aachen in 742, made the city his northern capital and the leading center of Carolingian civilization. He built a splendid palace and founded the great cathedral, which contains his tomb. The cathedral, which has an octagonal nucleus modeled on the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy, received extensive Gothic additions in the 14th–15th cent. From 936 to 1531, German kings were usually crowned at Aachen. Treaties ending the War of DevolutionDevolution, War of,
1667–68, undertaken by Louis XIV for the conquest of the Spanish Netherlands. On her marriage to Louis, Marie Thérèse, daughter of Philip IV of Spain, had renounced her rights of inheritance in return for a large dowry.
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 (1668) and the War of the Austrian SuccessionAustrian Succession, War of the,
1740–48, general European war. Causes of the War

The war broke out when, on the strength of the pragmatic sanction of 1713, the Austrian archduchess Maria Theresa succeeded her father, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, as ruler
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 (1748) were signed there (see Aix-la-Chapelle, Treaty ofAix-la-Chapelle, Treaty of
. 1 Compact of May 2, 1668, that ended the French invasion of the Spanish Netherlands (see Devolution, War of). France kept most of its conquests in Flanders; Cambrai, Aire, Saint-Omer, and the province of Franche-Comté were returned to
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). It was occupied (1794) by French troops and later annexed (1801) by France. It passed to Prussia in 1815. At the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1818) Czar Alexander I of Russia unsuccessfully proposed that the Holy AllianceHoly Alliance,
1815, agreement among the emperors of Russia and Austria and the king of Prussia, signed on Sept. 26. It was quite distinct from the Quadruple Alliance (Quintuple, after the admission of France) of Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia, arrived at first in
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 be tightened. From 1918 to 1930 the city was occupied by the Allies as a result of Germany's defeat in World War I. During World War II approximately two thirds of Aachen was destroyed by aerial bombardment, and the city was the first major German city to fall (Oct., 1944) to the Allies.

References in periodicals archive ?
Schaub says the road could have connected the important settlement in Aachen to what is today the Dutch city of Maastricht.
"Co-locating our activities in Aachen is a first ever in Europe for DPM and represents a paradigm shift in how we do research and new business development," noted DuPont business development manager Ernst Poppe.
TWINS VISIT: Visitors from Aachen enjoy celebrating their links with Halifax (s)
An admired portraitist, Von Aachen also made likenesses of his patrons, associates, and friends so that, by having engravings produced of their effigy, they could trumpet their own renown, as well as that of their portraitist, whose name (included in the engravings) added lustre to theirs, just as theirs illuminated his, until the artist's illustrious circle blazed in the light of fame.
"The goal is to create a dense urban neighbourhood district where people live together within high quality open spaces," said Claudia Kruschwitz, assistant professor for urban planning at RWTH Aachen University.
And Aachen manager Dieter Hecking hopes this terrific adventure will inspire a return to the Bundesliga.
Louise, a former classmate of Lucie Blackman, the British woman murdered in Japan, was due to travel from Aachen to Ostend in Belgium on July 30 before sailing to Dover to meet her fiance.
The Aachen Peace Prize was established in 1988 with voluntary donations from locals, churches and labor unions.
The Aachen team competition is regarded as the toughest in the world outside the Olympics - but Britain had not won a Nations Cup meeting for two years.
It all started, according to Einhard who was a member of the court during the Aachen years, because Charles loved swimming: there were thermal springs and old Roman baths at Aachen, and Charles `swam whenever he could.
Aachen synagogue, consecrated in May this year, is located on the site of the 1862 synagogue destroyed during the night of 9 November 1938.