(redirected from Aachen, Germany)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.




(ĕks-lä-shäpĕl`), or

Bad Aachen

(bät ä`khən), city (1994 pop. 246,570), North Rhine–Westphalia, W Germany, near the Belgian and Dutch borders. One of the great historic cities of Europe, it is now chiefly important as a rail and road hub and as an industrial center. Almost every branch of the iron and steel industry is represented in the area. Its manufactures include textiles, electrical goods, food (chocolate and candy), glass, machinery, rubber goods, metal products, and furniture. The city's hot mineral baths, frequented by the Romans in the 1st cent. A.D., are still used to treat gout, rheumatism, and skin diseases. Aachen is the site of a technical university and numerous other educational institutions. There are several cultural institutions, notably the Ludwig Art Forum, which exhibits modern art.

Charlemagne, who was probably born in Aachen in 742, made the city his northern capital and the leading center of Carolingian civilization. He built a splendid palace and founded the great cathedral, which contains his tomb. The cathedral, which has an octagonal nucleus modeled on the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy, received extensive Gothic additions in the 14th–15th cent. From 936 to 1531, German kings were usually crowned at Aachen. Treaties ending the War of DevolutionDevolution, War of,
1667–68, undertaken by Louis XIV for the conquest of the Spanish Netherlands. On her marriage to Louis, Marie Thérèse, daughter of Philip IV of Spain, had renounced her rights of inheritance in return for a large dowry.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (1668) and the War of the Austrian SuccessionAustrian Succession, War of the,
1740–48, general European war. Causes of the War

The war broke out when, on the strength of the pragmatic sanction of 1713, the Austrian archduchess Maria Theresa succeeded her father, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, as ruler
..... Click the link for more information.
 (1748) were signed there (see Aix-la-Chapelle, Treaty ofAix-la-Chapelle, Treaty of
. 1 Compact of May 2, 1668, that ended the French invasion of the Spanish Netherlands (see Devolution, War of). France kept most of its conquests in Flanders; Cambrai, Aire, Saint-Omer, and the province of Franche-Comté were returned to
..... Click the link for more information.
). It was occupied (1794) by French troops and later annexed (1801) by France. It passed to Prussia in 1815. At the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1818) Czar Alexander I of Russia unsuccessfully proposed that the Holy AllianceHoly Alliance,
1815, agreement among the emperors of Russia and Austria and the king of Prussia, signed on Sept. 26. It was quite distinct from the Quadruple Alliance (Quintuple, after the admission of France) of Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia, arrived at first in
..... Click the link for more information.
 be tightened. From 1918 to 1930 the city was occupied by the Allies as a result of Germany's defeat in World War I. During World War II approximately two thirds of Aachen was destroyed by aerial bombardment, and the city was the first major German city to fall (Oct., 1944) to the Allies.

References in periodicals archive ?
Technical building equipment, heat Equipment - New construction of 4 total school gym, SandkaulstraE-e 75, 52062 Aachen, Germany.
Institut fur Kunststoffverabeitung at RWTH (IKV), Aachen, Germany
Ten times faster analysis and new crystallization simulation capability are fealured in the latest version of 3D-Sigma injection molding simulation software from Sigma Engineering in Aachen, Germany (represented here by Kruse Analy sis, Naples, Fla.
The Institute for Plastics Processing (IKV) at the University of Aachen, Germany, was the first to develop software using the so-called Puck Criterion to analyze the load-bearing strength of composite structures.
Spent" sand should be considered a raw material whose properties can surpass those of new sand, according to Professor Dietmar Boenisch of the Technische Hochschule's Giesserei Institut, Aachen, Germany, and conference dinner speaker.
A new tooling and process concept that seeks better control over multi-cavity molding, and another that achieves new capabilities with novel blends of multiple process technologies were themes presented in papers at the 22nd Colloquium held by the Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) in Aachen, Germany.
Institut fut Kunststoffverarbeitung, 22nd International Plastics Technology Colloquium, Aachen, Germany, Bernd Lauer, tel.