Abbas II

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Abbas II

(Abbas Hilmi) (äbäs` hĭl`mĭ, ăbäs`, ăb`əs), 1874–1944, last khedive of Egypt (1892–1914); son and successor of Tewfik PashaTewfik Pasha
(Muhammad Tewfik) , 1852–92, khedive of Egypt (1879–92). He acceded to office when his father, Ismail Pasha, was deposed. In 1880, Tewfik accepted joint French-British control over the nation's finances.
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. Nominally he ruled in subordination to the Ottoman Empire, but in fact Egypt was controlled by the British resident—at first Lord CromerCromer, Evelyn Baring, 1st earl of
, 1841–1917, British administrator in Egypt. Appointed (1877) first British commissioner of the Egyptian public debt office, he directed investigations by France and England into
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, and later Lord KitchenerKitchener, Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl
, 1850–1916, British field marshal and statesman. Trained at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich (1868–70), he had a brief period of service in the French army
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. Although he resisted complete British rule, Abbas met with little success; in 1899 he was forced to admit the British claim to rule jointly with Egypt over Sudan. When Turkey joined the Central Powers in World War I, Britain declared Egypt a British protectorate and deposed Abbas. He lived thereafter in Switzerland, where he died. He wrote The Anglo-Egyptian Settlement (1930).