Abbasid

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Related to Abbasid dynasty: Umayyad dynasty

Abbasid

(əbă`sĭd, ă`bəsĭd) or

Abbaside

(–sīd, –sĭd), Arab family descended from AbbasAbbas
, d. 653, uncle of Muhammad the Prophet and of Ali the caliph. A wealthy merchant of Mecca, he was at first opposed to the religious movement initiated by his nephew Muhammad.
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, the uncle of Muhammad. The Abbasids held the caliphate from 749 to 1258, but they were recognized neither in Spain nor (after 787) W of Egypt. Under the UmayyadUmayyad
, the first Islamic dynasty (661–750). Their reign witnessed the return to leadership roles of the pre-Islamic Arab elite, and the rejuvenation of tribal loyalties. The Banu Ummaya constituted the higher stratum of the pre-Islamic Meccan elite.
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 caliphs the Abbasids lived quietly until they became involved in numerous disputes, beginning early in the 8th cent. The family then joined with the Shiite faction in opposing the Umayyads, and in 747 the gifted Abu MuslimAbu Muslim
, c.728–755, Persian leader of the Abbasid revolution. By political and religious agitation he raised (747) the black banners of the Abbasids against the ruling Umayyad family.
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 united most of the empire in revolt against the Umayyads. The head of the Abbasid family became caliph as Abu al-Abbas as-SaffahAbu al-Abbas as-Saffah
, d. 754, 1st Abbasid caliph (749–54). Raised to the caliphate by the armed might of Abu Muslim, he took the reign name as-Saffah [shedder of blood]. Most of the Umayyad family was exterminated, and the reign was one of massacre and force.
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 late in 749. The last Umayyad caliph, Marwan II, was defeated and killed and the Umayyad family nearly exterminated; one surviving member fled to Spain, where the Umayyads came to rule. Under the second Abbasid caliph, called al-Mansur (see Mansur, al-Mansur, al-
[Arab.,=the victorious], d. 775, 2d Abbasid caliph (754–75) and founder of the city of Baghdad. His name was in full Abu Jafar abd-Allah al-Mansur. He was brother and successor of Abu al-Abbas.
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, d. 775), the capital was moved from Damascus to Baghdad, and Persian influence grew strong in the empire. The early years of Abbasid rule were brilliant, rising to true splendor under Harun ar-RashidHarun ar-Rashid
[Arab.,=Aaron the Upright], c.764–809, 5th and most famous Abbasid caliph (786–809). He succeeded his brother Musa al-Hadi, fourth caliph, a year after the death of his father, Mahdi, the third caliph.
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, the fifth caliph, and to intellectual brilliance under his son al-Mamun (see Mamun, al-Mamun, al-
(Abu al-Abbas Abd Allah al-Mamun) , 786–833, 7th Abbasid caliph (813–33); son of Harun ar-Rashid. He succeeded his brother al-Amin after a bitter civil war, but was unable to enter Baghdad until 819.
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), the seventh caliph. After less than a hundred years of rule, however, the slow decline of the Abbasids began. Long periods of disorder were marked by assassinations, depositions, control by Turkish soldiers, and other disturbances, and from the beginning of their reign there were rival caliphs (see caliphatecaliphate
, the rulership of Islam; caliph , the spiritual head and temporal ruler of the Islamic state. In principle, Islam is theocratic: when Muhammad died, a caliph [Arab.,=successor] was chosen to rule in his place.
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). In 836 the capital was transferred to Samarra, remaining there until 892. Under the later Abbasids, the power of the caliphate became chiefly spiritual. Many independent kingdoms sprang up, and the empire split into autonomous units. The Seljuk Turks came to hold the real power at Baghdad. The conquests of Jenghiz Khan further lowered the prestige of the Abbasids, and in 1258 his grandson Hulagu Khan sacked Baghdad and overthrew the Abbasid caliphate. The 37th caliph died in the disaster, but a member of the family escaped to Cairo, where he was recognized as caliph (see MamluksMamluk
or Mameluke
[Arab.,=slaves], a warrior caste dominant in Egypt and influential in the Middle East for over 700 years. Islamic rulers created this warrior caste by collecting non-Muslim slave boys and training them as cavalry soldiers especially loyal to their
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). The Cairo line of the Abbasid caliphate, completely subordinated to the Mamluks, survived until after the Ottoman conquest (1517) of Egypt.

Bibliography

See M. A. Shaban, The Abbāsid Revolution (1970); H. Kennedy, The Early Abbasid Caliphate (1981).

References in periodicals archive ?
So that most of them were ministers of the Abbasid dynasty in Iran - including Bramkh and Benny Sahl- they had an intense interest in the revival of Persian customs and habits and the material, spiritual, wealth and luxury life was also another incentive to develop artists".
Later when the Abbasid Dynasty was supplanted by the Fatamid Dynasty, Al Qahira (Cairo) was officially founded in AD969.
The novel takes place in the tenth century at the time of the Abbasid dynasty, in an urban enclave surrounded by huge walls.
When the Abbasid dynasty took power in 750, Europe was stuck in a period scholars once called the Dark Ages, making few advances in knowledge.
The new technology will pass a death sentence on the tradition of the harem as we have known it since the Abbasid dynasty in many Muslim societies.
Iranian identified and imposed culture and civilization to them by entering to the Abbasid court and such proceedings were conducted by Pahlavi books translation into Arabic and became so obvious and strong that the Arabic Umayyad covenant was partly removed, because the Muslim religion was superior criterion more than the Arab race in new government, especially Arabs had swaps with the government everywhere and they weren't dependable to Abbasid dynasty.
750 Abbasid dynasty, a Sunni Caliphate based in Iraq, ruled eastern half of Islamic empire for nearly 200 years.
The standard view is that the abna' al-dawla were the backbone of the Abbasid dynasty, coming into existence with that regime after the revolution circa 132/750 and consisting of the original fighters from Khurasan and their descendants, who formed an elite social and political structure of supporters.
Thus, with the foundation of the Abbasid dynasty the ethnic social classes of the Sasanid empire were revived within an Islamic framework.
The Samanids who want to gain national pride of Iranians, they tried hard to achive this goal, though they tolerated the Abbasid dynasty.
The correct dating of these ceramic types by archaeologists working in Israel should result in the recognition of previously "invisible" Abbasid settlements and occupation levels, and help change the common assumption that the rise of the Abbasid dynasty led to the impoverishment and depopulation of Palestine (most recently restated by Haiman 1995: 45; see Whitcomb 1990).
A brief overview of Ministers records of the Abbasid dynasty in the period of domination of the Turks, especially the powerful caliphate onwards, shows how this important position being the mercy of speculators positions of the caliphs [18], So, the advent of the office of Amiral-omarei should be considered the result of the vitiate Department officers.