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a dynasty of Arab caliphs (750–1258), descended from Abbas, uncle of Muhammad. Taking advantage of the successes of the anti-Umayyad Shiite movement (the uprising of Abu Muslim), the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyads.

The first Abbasid caliph was Abu-al-Abbas al-Saffah (750–754). The Arab nobility lost its former exclusive position; the feudal nobility of Iran and Middle Asia became the chief support of the Abbasids. The center of the caliphate moved from Syria to Iraq. The capital of the Abassid state became Baghdad, established in 762 by the caliph al-Mansur. (The Abbasid state is often called the Baghdad Caliphate.) In the Abbasid Caliphate, as in the Umayyad one, feudal relations predominated, preserving powerful slave-owning and patriarchal ways. The Abbasid Caliphate attained its greatest power under the caliphs al-Mansur (754–775), al-Mahdi (775–785), Harun al-Rashid (786–809), and al-Mamun (813–833).

The intensification of feudal oppression in the Abbasid state and the rise in taxes provoked numerous popular uprisings—for example, the Muqanna uprising of the 770’s and 780’s, Babek’s uprising at the beginning of the ninth century, and uprisings in Armenia in the ninth century. At the end of the eighth century certain territories—for example, Morocco in 788—began to break away. The process of disintegration of the Abbasid state intensified in the ninth century: in Iran, Middle Asia, Transcaucasia, and Egypt, independent states ruled by local dynasties (Tahirids, Saf-farids, Tulunids, Bagratids, and others) began to be formed. The Abbasids tried to counteract the reduction in revenues resulting from these processes by a redoubled exploitation of the remaining regions, which led to the regions’ economic decline.

In order to oppose the growth of separatism among the provincial feudal nobility, the Abbasids, beginning with al-Mutasima (833–842), surrounded themselves with a palace guard of Turkish slaves and, in fact, fell under their power. Al-Mutawaqqil (847–961) was killed trying to combat the guards’ omnipotence. The uprising of the Zanj slaves (beginning in 869), which was suppressed only with great difficulty by government troops in 883, fundamentally undermined Abassid power. In 945 the Buwayhids seized Baghdad and deprived the Abbasids of political power; the caliphs retained only their authority as spiritual leaders of the Sunni sect, and secular rulers were invested by them.

The Abbasids had a certain significance under the Seljuks as a symbol of struggle against the Fatimids; under the energetic caliph al-Nasir (1180–1225) they succeeded in restoring their secular power in Baghdad and adjacent regions. In 1258 the last Abbasid caliph, al-Mustasim (1242–58), was executed by Hulagu.

In 1261 the Mameluke sultan Baybars recognized as caliph al-Mustansir, one of the Abbasids who had escaped persecution by the Hulaguids. In 1517, after the conquest of Egypt by the Turks, his descendant (real or pretended) Mutawaqqil III was taken to Istanbul. The legend about the transfer of spiritual sovereignty from the Abbasids to the Turkish sultans was based on this incident.


Bartol’d, V. V. Sochineniia, vol. 6. Moscow, 1966. Pages 15–78.
Beliaev, E. A. Araby, islam i arabskii khalifat. Moscow, 1965.
Istoriia stran Azii i Afriki ν srednie veka. Moscow, 1968. Part 2, ch. 8.
Hitti, P. K. History of the Arabs, 8th ed. London, 1964. “Abbasides.” Encyclopédie de l’lslam, 2nd ed., vol. 1. Paris-Leyden, 1960.


References in periodicals archive ?
her destroyed al-Jazira Province (in Iraq's north-west - now Ninewa province including its capital Mosul as a final warning to the Abbasids and returned to al-Ihsa'.
23) The tension between the Seljuqs and the Abbasids did not end there: alustarshid's son and heir, al-Rashid (r.
The administrative machinery under Abbasids, in its effective distribution of work and its control of details, ranks with the best modern systems.
But they were anything but figureheads, and, as Kennedy points out, the surviving evidence from the period (most of it poetry) suggests that they were thought to be stand-ins for Allah and not (like the Abbasids in and after the middle of the 9th century) mere successors.
He then conquered all of Syria, sometimes fighting the Turks and sometimes the Abbasids -- life was pretty complicated back then, and one can only go into so much detail; I'm sure the reader gets the drift.
So it was a good opportunity to help Abbasids by translation of that book by Ibn-Moghafaa.
In particular, there is much to be learned from the different legacies of the caliph Al-Nasir (1180-1225) and the last Abbasid caliph, Al-Mustsim (1242-1258).
When it finally came in 1219, Indian Sultanate under Iltumash, a legacy of Ghorids chose to lay back in safety of Central India while a reduced Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad adopted the strategy of self denial and watched the decimation of Khwarzim cities of Samarkand and Bukhara.
UMAYYAD rulers (661 to 750 CE) with their capital in Syria sought to marginalize the Shiite minority and like the later Abbasids (750 to 1258) turned on their Shiite allies and imprisoned, persecuted, and killed them.
The dome houses the remains of the Abbasids Caliphates who died in Egypt in the seventh and eighth Hijri centuries.
When the Abbasids regained power in AD 905, Ibn Tulun's city was razed, but the great mosque at its centre was spared.
She begins with an analysis of the balance of power between caliphs and sultans from the period of Seljuq domination to that of Abbasid recovery, questions the concept of 'Sunni revival' as a deliberate and organised policy of the Seljuqs, discusses urban development in Baghdad in Seljuq times and the way in which the shared control of the Seljuqs and the Abbasids over the city functioned, and concludes that Seljuq rule over the city increased the integration of Baghdad into the eastern Islamic world.