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Moreover, ABCG2 expression group showed tendencies towards later BCLC stage, more macrovascular invasion, more patients out of Milan criteria, and higher Ki67 index.
Within this concept, transporters from the OATP (SLC21) family such as OATp1A2, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, and OATP3A1 contribute to the cellular accumulation of E1S [11, 12], while ABC-efflux pumps from the MRP-family (ABCC1 and ABCC2), and the breast-cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) mediates the efflux of E1S from the cells [13] ( Figure 2).
Three QTL for CWT were detected in the proximal region of BTA6 (30 to 45 Mb), on which several genes including FAM190A and ABCG2 were located (Figure 1).
(91-93) Genes activated by HIF-2[alpha] alone include the stem cell factor gene Oct4 (94) and ABCG2. (95)
An early loss of NSC self-renewal gene expression (p63, ABCG2, BMI-1, SHH, OCT-4, NOTCH-1) during arsenite exposure was subsequently reversed as the tumor suppressor gene PTEN was progressively suppressed and the CSC-like phenotype acquired.
For example, the anticancer drug irinotecan is not only metabolized by UGT1A1 but is also a substrate for transporter molecules coded by ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2, and SLCO1B1 (4).
Recently, many cell surface and intracellular molecules have been identified: the stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1/Lewis X/CD15) [23], CD24 [24], p75 receptor [25], ABCG2 [26], brain-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans [27], O-glycans, and PSA-NCAM [28] have been utilized to purify a population of cells from neural tissues (Figure 1).
These subfamilies include the ABCA member 1 (ABCA1) that acts as cholesterol efflux regulatory protein (CERP) and extrudes phospholipids from cell membranes to Apolipoprotein E (ApoE); the ABCB subfamily member 1 (ABCB1), which mediates multidrug resistance (MDR); the ABCC subfamily of multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP); and the ABCG2 subfamily of the breast cancer resistance protein (BRCP) [40].
ABCG2 ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G (WHITE), 0.873 member 2; xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from the brain.
BCRP (ABCG2) represents another ABC transporter that confers resistance to a broad spectrum of anticancer drugs in various tumor types, including human breast carcinoma, colon carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, fibrosarcoma, and myeloma (Doyle and Ross 2003).
Notably, dysfunction of the ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) suppresses the excretion of uric acid into intestine [22].
Further characterization of these haplotypes using sequence information, radiation hybrid mapping and comparative mapping with the human genome sequence resolved the QTL to a 420Kb haplotype region between gene ABCG2 and LAP3 (Olsen et al., 2005).