The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



Umayyad rulers of the Cordoban Emirate (after 929, the CÓrdoban Caliphate).

Abd-al-Rahman I (circa 734–88). Became emir in 756. He founded the dynasty of the CÓrdoban Umayyads and the emirate on the Iberian Peninsula. Called al-Dakhil (The Stranger).

To escape persecution by the Abbasids, Abd-al-Rahman fled Syria in 750, crossed North Africa, and reached Spain, where he captured Córdoba and was proclaimed emir of Andalusia. Pursuing a policy of centralization, he subdued the Berber Arab tribal aristocracy. He repulsed attacks by the Christian rulers of northern Spain and the Franks, led by Charlemagne.

Abd-al-Rahman II (792–852). Great-grandson of Abd-al-Rahman I. Became emir in 822. He was known for his patronage of the arts and sciences and religious tolerance. The wide-scale construction undertaken during his reign intensified the fiscal burden.

Abd-al-Rahman III (891–961). Called al-Nasir (The Victorious). Became emir in 912, caliph in 929. He restored the emirate, which had disintegrated during the reign of his predecessors. He seized Ceuta in 931 and Toledo in 932; in 955, León and Navarre began paying tribute to him. He maintained diplomatic relations with Byzantium and with Otto I, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Attempting to maintain an army that was independent of both the feudal lords and the population, he formed a guard corps of European slaves (Saqalibah). His fleet was the most powerful in the Mediterranean. He encouraged the growth of construction; during his reign the country residence al-Zahra was built and work begun on the Mosque of Córdoba. Abd-al-Rahman III’s administration represented the height of CÓrdobán Umayyad power.


Kudriavtsev, A. E. Ispaniia ν srednie veka. Leningrad, 1937.
Dozy, R. Histoire des musulmans d’Espagne . . ., new ed., vols. 1–3. Leiden, 1932.
Lévi-Provençal, E. Histoire d’Espagne musulmane, 2nd ed., vols. 1–3. Paris, 1950–53.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
MOHAMED Salim's evidence could help bring other Janjaweed war criminals to justice - including the militia's leader Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-Al-Rahman.
Aisha Mohammad Saleh Abd-al-Rahman al Hashemi, assistant director of the Education Institute for Private Schools affairs, said private schools could choose between getting national and international accreditation, provided that schools get accreditation from organisations approved only by the SEC.
On Thursday 23, a group of 15 youth, in collaboration with some local civil society organizations in Abyei town, gave deputy chief administrator, Ramah Abd-al-Rahman Al-Nur, an emotional note, asking him to leave the area within 72 hours, short of that, his security would not be granted in the area.
Abd-al-Rahman Reihan, claims that archaeological evidence in Dahab in the Sinai Peninsula shows that the Star of David, traditionally thought to be a Jewish symbol, is actually Muslim.
The letter was signed by "Abu Abd-Al-Rahman the Libyan" and "Abu Al-Walid," among others.
Air Force F-16 planes dropped a pair of 500-pound precision-guided bombs on a house where al-Zarqawi was meeting with associates, including his spiritual adviser Shiek Abd-al-Rahman, near Baquba, northeast of Baghdad, at 6:15 p.m.
A Treasury spokesman said: "All UN member states are obliged to implement an asset freeze, travel ban and arms embargo on all listed individuals and entities." Three of the men - Abd-Al-Rahman Al Faqih, aged 46, Ghuma Abd'rabbah, aged 48, and Abdulbaqi Mohammed Khaled, aged 48 - are said to be based in Birmingham.
There is the story of the ninth-century martyr Pelagius, a boy whose beauty so aroused 'Abd-al-Rahman III, the caliph of Cordoba, that he wished to enjoy its delights.
One notable instance of official retribution concerns the case of Hasan 'Abd-al-Rahman Hasan Salih, a 22-year-old resident of the village of 'Arura in the Ramallah district of the West Bank.
Rahmah Abd-al-Rahman Al-Nur, disclosed yesterday he had received the threat in a letter delivered by a group of youth in Khartoum to his secretariat during his presence in the capital, Khartoum.
He said al-Zarqawi survived for some 52 minutes after the first airstrike on a safe house where he was meeting with his associates, including his spiritual adviser Shiek Abd-al-Rahman, who also died.