Abd al-Hamid II

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Abd al-Hamid II,

1842–1918, Ottoman sultan (1876–1909). His uncle, Abd al-AzizAbd al-Aziz
or Abdülaziz
, 1830–76, Ottoman sultan (1861–76), brother and successor of Abd al-Majid. The economic and political reforms enacted under his rule could not outpace the decline of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey).
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, was deposed from the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) in 1876 by the Young Turks, a liberal reformist group. Abd al-Hamid's brother, Murad VMurad V,
1840–1904, Ottoman sultan (1876), son of Abd al-Majid. He came to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) when his uncle, Abd al-Aziz, was deposed, but he was soon declared insane and was succeeded by his brother, Abd al-Hamid II.
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, succeeded as sultan, but was shortly declared insane, and Abd al-Hamid ascended the throne. He at first accepted (1876) the constitution promulgated by Midhat PashaMidhat Pasha
, 1822–83, Turkish politician. As governor of Bulgaria he succeeded within the few years of his tenure (1864–69) in raising the country from misery to relative prosperity. Schools, roads, and granaries were built from funds obtained by local taxation.
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 but soon suspended it, dismissed Midhat, and eventually had him strangled. The war with Russia (see Russo-Turkish WarsRusso-Turkish Wars.
The great eastward expansion of Russia in the 16th and 17th cent., during the decline of the Ottoman Empire, nevertheless left the shores of the Black Sea in the hands of the Ottoman sultans and their vassals, the khans of Crimea.
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) led to the Treaty of San StefanoSan Stefano, Treaty of
, 1878, peace treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, at the conclusion of the last of the Russo-Turkish Wars; it was signed at San Stefano (now Yeşilköy), a village W of İstanbul, Turkey.
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, subsequently modified by the Congress of Berlin (see Berlin, Congress ofBerlin, Congress of,
1878, called by the signers of the Treaty of Paris of 1856 (see Paris, Congress of) to reconsider the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano, which Russia had forced on the Ottoman Empire earlier in 1878.
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). To save what remained of his empire, the sultan then pursued a policy of friendship with Germany. German officers reorganized the Turkish army, and German business interests obtained concessions, most notably for the construction of the Baghdad RailwayBaghdad Railway,
railroad of international importance linking Europe with Asia Minor and the Middle East. The line runs from İstanbul, Turkey, to Basra, Iraq; it connected what were distant regions of the Ottoman Empire.
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. For his part in the Armenian massacres of 1894–96, he was called the Great Assassin and the Red Sultan. Ruling as absolute monarch, Abd al-Hamid lived in virtual seclusion. In 1908 the Young Turks, who had penetrated the armed services, revolted and forced the sultan to adhere to the constitution of 1876. He was deposed (1909) when he tried to plot a counterrevolution and was succeeded by his brother, Muhammad VMuhammad V
or Mehmet V,
1844–1918, Ottoman sultan (1909–18). He succeeded to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) when the liberal Young Turk revolution of 1909 deposed his brother, Abd al-Hamid II.
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.

Bibliography

See study by J. Haslip (new ed. 1973).

References in periodicals archive ?
Sultan Abdul Hamid II conferred the Ottoman medal of highest degree to Sultan Abu Bakar and medal of second degree to Sayid Muhammad al-Sagoff (C.O 273/126).
Abdul Hamid II himself was an avid collector of photographs about life in the empire and was keen to use the medium for state propaganda.
Indeed, his efforts earned him the favor of Sultan Abdul Hamid II, who duly recognized Webb for his services.
A revolt breaking out in 1894 in the Sassun province, though opposed by the majority of Armenians, offered Sultan Abdul Hamid II the pretext for reprisals, resulting in the massacre of roughly 80,000 Armenians against vehement protests of Christian Europe.
The Imperial Harem is an excellent example of the renaissance of Ottoman historiography in the 1990s through well-documented studies on, for example, army supplies in the seventeenth century, Bosphorus life in the eighteenth, or the monarchy of Abdul Hamid II. In some fields Ottoman historiography is ahead: there are no studies of the structure of sexual politics of the other dynasties of Europe.
Like his role model, Sultan Abdul Hamid II, he had a soft spot for Damascus, due to its Umayyad past, with both men often referring to it as 'Sham Sharif' or 'Noble Damascus'.
When the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II was asked at around the turn of the 20th century by a group of Jewish leaders to sell a homeland for Jews in Palestine, he retorted: "My people won these lands with their blood.
1896 Abdul Hamid II, Sultan of Turkey, agrees to introduce self-government in Crete.
The Jewish temple was built in 1907 during the reign of Sultan Abdul Hamid II to accommodate 1,000 worshippers, to meet the needs of the large Jewish congregation living in the city and its environs.
The renovated mosques include Al-Anbriah, one of ancient mosques built by the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1326, and Alskiah Mosque in Bab Al-Anbriah, which is a small mosque topped with three domes, but has no minaret.
1909 - Sultan of Turkey Abdul Hamid II is overthrown.
Radikal daily columnist AyE-e HE-r suggested in her Sunday piece that Erdoy-an's Twitter ban invited comparisons to 34th Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II, as the first victim of the sultan's autocratic regime was also freedom of speech.