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(ŭb`ĭdŭr'mə) [Skt.,=higher dharma, or doctrine], schools of Buddhist philosophy. Early BuddhismBuddhism
, religion and philosophy founded in India c.525 B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha. There are over 300 million Buddhists worldwide. One of the great world religions, it is divided into two main schools: the Theravada or Hinayana in Sri Lanka and SE Asia, and
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 analyzed experience into 5 skandhas or aggregates, and alternatively into 18 dhatus or elements. Later schools developed the process of analysis and classification that was called Abhidharma; their treatises were collected in the Abhidharmapitaka, one of the three main divisions of the Pali Buddhist canon (see Buddhist literatureBuddhist literature.
During his lifetime the Buddha taught not in Vedic Sanskrit, which had become unintelligible to the people, but in his own NE Indian dialect; he also encouraged his monks to propagate his teachings in the vernacular.
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, Pali canonPali canon
, sacred literature of Buddhism. The texts in the Pali canon are the earliest Buddhist sources, and for Theravada Buddhists, who claim to conserve the original teachings of the Buddha, they are still the most authoritative sacred texts.
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). The five skandhas analyzed experience to demonstrate the absence of an abiding "self." The categories of analysis were dharmas, or natures, ultimate qualities or principles that arise and pass away in irreducible moments of time. Lists of dharmas varied from 75 to 157, with different schools classifying the dharmas into different groups, and the exact definition of a dharma eventually became the subject of great controversy. The greatest systematizer of Abhidharma thought was Vasubandhu (5th cent. A.D.), who wrote the encyclopedic Abhidharma-kosa or Treasury of Abhidharma.


See H. Guenther, Philosophy and Psychology in the Abhidharma (1957); T. Stcherbatsky, The Central Conception of Buddhism (4th ed. 1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
Somewhat out of place in the abhidhamma pitaka, this book contains descriptions of a number of personality-types.
The Analysis of the Act of Killing in the Abhidhamma and Pali Commentaries.
The first takes place on Tuesday from 7pm and is called Abhidhamma - it celebrates the Buddha's teaching of the Abhidhamma.
The result of these efforts became what is known in Pali as the Abhidhamma (skt.
Nor do we get exploration of any of the distinctive forms of moral discourse offered by the tradition, such as the moral psychology of the Abhidhamma, the systematic moral reflection of Buddhaghosa, or the recent fascinating ethnographic studies of moral thinking in Theravada communities, all of which would no doubt make Goodman's main argument much harder going.
In Abhidhamma the mind or mental formation can be analyzed into at least 121 states, we need to familiarize our mind to stay or to be constantly in this state of wholesomeness.
Consider also traditional Buddhist Abhidhamma philosophy where the importance of consciousness is emphasized over the obvious material world.
Buddhists will hold a remembrance ceremony during the Festival of Hungry Ghosts while a candle will be lit by the spiritual director of Birmingham Buddhist Vihara during Abhidhamma Day at the Dhammatalaka Peace Pagoda in the city centre.
It's busy month with the end of vassa (three months' rains retreat) heralding Abhidhamma Day, Parents' Day and Pavarana, all being celebrated on Saturday, the full Moon day, which is today at 7pm, and tomorrow is the Kathina (Sangha) day celebration (10.
Speaking directly to Holder's choice of Sutta(nta)-Pitaka discourses (like the Kalama, Tevijja, and Sigalovada among others), in Pali Buddhist societies these discourses are often included in indigenous anthologies alongside commentaries on the Jatakas and Dhammapada, as well as narrative sections of the Vinaya-Tipiiaka and commentaries on the Abhidhamma.
Dhammawati offers classes in Abhidhamma, Mahasatipatthana, etc.