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(ŭb`ĭdŭr'mə) [Skt.,=higher dharma, or doctrine], schools of Buddhist philosophy. Early BuddhismBuddhism
, religion and philosophy founded in India c.525 B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha. There are over 300 million Buddhists worldwide. One of the great world religions, it is divided into two main schools: the Theravada or Hinayana in Sri Lanka and SE Asia, and
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 analyzed experience into 5 skandhas or aggregates, and alternatively into 18 dhatus or elements. Later schools developed the process of analysis and classification that was called Abhidharma; their treatises were collected in the Abhidharmapitaka, one of the three main divisions of the Pali Buddhist canon (see Buddhist literatureBuddhist literature.
During his lifetime the Buddha taught not in Vedic Sanskrit, which had become unintelligible to the people, but in his own NE Indian dialect; he also encouraged his monks to propagate his teachings in the vernacular.
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, Pali canonPali canon
, sacred literature of Buddhism. The texts in the Pali canon are the earliest Buddhist sources, and for Theravada Buddhists, who claim to conserve the original teachings of the Buddha, they are still the most authoritative sacred texts.
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). The five skandhas analyzed experience to demonstrate the absence of an abiding "self." The categories of analysis were dharmas, or natures, ultimate qualities or principles that arise and pass away in irreducible moments of time. Lists of dharmas varied from 75 to 157, with different schools classifying the dharmas into different groups, and the exact definition of a dharma eventually became the subject of great controversy. The greatest systematizer of Abhidharma thought was Vasubandhu (5th cent. A.D.), who wrote the encyclopedic Abhidharma-kosa or Treasury of Abhidharma.


See H. Guenther, Philosophy and Psychology in the Abhidharma (1957); T. Stcherbatsky, The Central Conception of Buddhism (4th ed. 1970).

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References in periodicals archive ?
In Early Buddhism and Abhidharma Thought: In Honor of Doctor Hajime Sakurabe on His Seventy-seventh Birthday.
John the Beloved Disciple, who summed up the message of Jesus in this statement: "God is light, and in him is no darkness at all." This was a counter-intuitive disavowal of the primacy of matter, not dissimilar to the earlier Abhidharma Buddhist concept of "pannindriya", which emphasized cultivating a "field of understanding" in order to grasp That Which Is.
This very concern is what gives sense to the Abhidharma (and general Buddhist) project of the purification of self-interested constructions of objects as so valorized: human epistemic agents have it in their power to cognize the nature of such objects as ultimately devoid of any inherent quality of aversion or attraction.
Text, History, and Philosophy: Abhidharma Across Buddhist Scholastic Traditions
According to some Abhidharma traditions," wrote Hayes, "one of the last obstacles that a person overcomes on the road to liberation is maana, usually translated as pride...
Abhidharma Buddhism claims that each dharma as a series of experiences is self-sufficient but impermanent hence antithetical to Brahman.
Compoem o Tripitaka textos sobre a doutrina (Sutra Pitaka), a disciplina monastica (Vinaya Pitaka), bem como aqueles de carater filosofico e psicologico (Abhidharma Pitaka).
Whatever its origins, it is a remarkable text that presents a new perspective on the nature of phenomena and proposes a revolutionary break with the Buddhist psychology set forth by the traditional Abhidharma schools.
In chapter thirty of Abitan Bajiandu Lun [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Eight Discourses by Abhidharma), translated by the Early Qin monks Sengjiatipo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and Zhu Fonian [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], the Buddha equates human anger with the tiger's ferocious character (Taisho 26.