Abkhaz

(redirected from Abkhazi)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.

Abkhaz

 

one of the Caucasian (Iberio-Caucasian) languages which has recently become a written language and which is included in the Abkhazo-Adyg group. This language is spoken predominantly in the Abkhazian ASSR (about 65,000 speakers) and in Turkey. It is represented by two dialects—the Abzhui dialect, on which the literary language is based, and the Bzyb’ dialect. The phonetics of the Abkhaz language is characterized by a meager vocalic system (the phonemes /a/ and /a/ with broad phonetic variation) and a rich consonantal system (58 phonemes in the literary language and 65 phonemes in the Bzyb’ dialect). Stress is phonologically significant.

By morphological type, the Abkhaz language is agglutinative, with a highly developed prefix structure. Elements of polysynthesism are much in evidence. The simplicity of the noun morphology contrasts with the complexity of the verbal morphology. There are several categories common to nouns and verbs (the categories of humans and things, number, and possessiveness; common particles). There are no declensions. Postpositions are used instead of prepositions. The verbs are divided into transitive and intransitive, static and dynamic. Among the verbal categories are person (polypersonal conjugation), number version potentiality, reciprocity, conjunctivity, causitive, tense, mood, and so forth. There is a complex system of preverbs. Infinite and verbal adverb constructions functioning as subordinate clauses are widely used. Compounding of words plays an important role in the formation of words. The vocabulary exhibits Turkisms, Georgianisms, and Russianisms. The Latin script adopted in 1928 was converted in 1938 to a Georgian script and in 1954 to a Russian script.

REFERENCES

Uslar, P. K. Etnografiia Kavkaza: Iazykoznanie. Vol. 1: Abkhazskii iazyk. Tiflis, 1887.
Marr, N. Ia. Abkhazsko-russkii slovar’. Leningrad, 1926.
Bgazhba, Kh. S. Bzybskii dialekt abkhazskogo iazyka. Tbilisi, 1964.
Lomtatidze, K. V. “Abkhazskii iazyk.” In Iazyki narodov SSSR. Vol. 4: Iberiisko-kavkazskie iazyki. Moscow, 1967.
Grammatika abkhazskogo iazyka. Sukhumi, 1968.

G. A. KLIMOV

References in periodicals archive ?
The garden was threatened in 1999 when a private developer bought the Abkhazi property with a plan to build up to a dozen townhouses on the site.
Hume was inspired, he says, by the similarity of this garden to the Sukhumi Gardens in Nicolas's native Abkhazi province in Georgia.
Valerie Murray, The Land Conservancy's appointed full-time head gardener, carries on the work at Abkhazi Garden with her volunteers.
For visitors from near and afar, the Abkhazi legacy lives on.
Abkhazi Garden is at 1964 Fairfield Road, a five-minute drive from downtown Victoria or a 10-minute ride on the No.
The Curious Cage: A Shanghai Journal, 1941-1945 by Peggy Abkhazi (Sono Nis Press, 1981).