Abolitionism


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Related to Abolitionism: abolitionist, Abolition movement

Abolitionism

 

(1) A social movement aimed at liquidating a law.

(2) A movement in the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries for the abolition of Negro slavery. Abolitionism in the United States was strikingly manifested by the Negro slave rebellions in the South—for example, the rebellions in 1800, led by Gabriel; and in 1831, led by Nat Turner. The beginning of an organized national abolitionist movement dates from the founding of the American Antislavery Society in 1833. Abolitionism unified broad segments of society, including farmers who were struggling for land against the slaveholding plantation owners, workers, progressive intellectuals, and activists in the Negro emancipation movement, as well as an element of the bourgeoisie who saw slavery as an obstacle to the development of capitalism in the country. The most revolutionary abolitionist groups, headed by F. Douglass, understood the need for armed force in the struggle against slavery. Of special importance in the struggle against slavery was the 1859 insurrection led by J. Brown. The popular masses played a leading role in the liquidation of slavery during the American Civil War. Under pressure from them, the government of A. Lincoln adopted as a military measure a law emancipating but giving no land to those Negro slaves who were owned by planters participating in the secessionist rebellion. However, the Civil War did not bring true freedom to the Negroes. The American bourgeoisie strove “to restore everything possible, and to do everything possible—even the impossible—to further the most shameless and vile oppression of Negroes” (V. I. Lenin, Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 27, p. 142).

(3) The struggle which developed in Great Britain, France, and several other European countries in the 18th and 19th centuries to abolish slavery in colonial areas.

References in periodicals archive ?
While Justice William Douglas's opinion in Furman gave voice to elements of what emerged later as the new abolitionism, Justice Brennan's Furman opinion drew heavily on a moral or philosophical interpretation of the Eighth Amendment.
Finally, this work provides essential information about the transnational nature of abolitionism and offers a rich compendium of antislavery print culture.
Slave Revolts and Abolitionism: A Debate with Joao Pedro Marques (New York: Berghahn Books), pp.
Brent Morris explores both the symbolic and substantive importance of Oberlin as a "hotbed of abolitionism." Morris explains how the perfectionist Christianity of the town's founders inspired the nation's first multiracial, co-educational college, and sustained an unusually integrated community.
Pain, as analyzed by abolitionism, returns in recent criminological literature in the form of violence and the threat of violence, along with the mechanisms of fear that are embedded in the very fabric of prisoners' lives (Sim 2008).
Despite this complex understanding of slavery, Meredith returned to the issue of northern abolitionism quite frequently.
Ultimately, as Daniel Carpenter notes in the foreword, "The volume becomes a reference work on American abolitionism and its meaning" (x).
Bradley Thompson, "The New Abolitionism: Why Education Emancipation is the Moral Imperative of our Time," The Objective Standard, vol.
Mott's embrace of this position predated that of almost all the major white players in American abolitionism, even William Lloyd Garrison, the supposed father of immediatism, whom, Faulkner suggests, Mott helped groom.
There is merit in her reading of the movement as surviving O'Connell's abolitionism, even his imprisonment and death, and then collapsing as the Irish movement became more radical.
Finney, the great revivalist, had served as professor of theology and president of the Oberlin Collegiate Institute, one of abolitionism's inimitable strongholds, a veritable training ground for abolitionist-missionaries and antebellum America's most radical educational institution.
DEREK PETERSON (ed.), Abolitionism and Imperialism in Britain, Africa, and the Atlantic.