abrasive

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abrasive,

material used to grind, smooth, cut, or polish another substance. Natural abrasives include sandsand,
rock material occurring in the form of loose, rounded or angular grains, varying in size from .06 mm to 2 mm in diameter, the particles being smaller than those of gravel and larger than those of silt or clay.
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, pumicepumice
, volcanic glass formed by the solidification of lava that is permeated with gas bubbles. Usually found at the surface of a lava flow, it is colorless or light gray and has the general appearance of a rock froth.
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, corundumcorundum
, mineral, aluminum oxide, Al2O3. The clear varieties are used as gems and the opaque as abrasive materials. Corundum occurs in crystals of the hexagonal system and in masses. It is transparent to opaque and has a vitreous to adamantine luster.
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, and ground quartzquartz,
one of the commonest of all rock-forming minerals and one of the most important constituents of the earth's crust. Chemically, it is silicon dioxide, SiO2.
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. Carborundum (silicon carbidesilicon carbide,
chemical compound, SiC, that forms extremely hard, dark, iridescent crystals that are insoluble in water and other common solvents. Widely used as an abrasive, it is marketed under such familiar trade names as Carborundum and Crystolon.
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) and aluminaalumina
or aluminum oxide,
Al2O3, chemical compound with m.p. about 2,000°C; and sp. gr. about 4.0. It is insoluble in water and organic liquids and very slightly soluble in strong acids and alkalies. Alumina occurs in two crystalline forms.
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 (aluminum oxide) are important synthetically produced abrasives. The hardest abrasives are natural or synthetic diamondsdiamond,
mineral, one of two crystalline forms of the element carbon (see allotropy), the hardest natural substance known, used as a gem and in industry. Properties
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, used in the form of dust or minuscule stones.

abrasive

[ə′brās·əv]
(geology)
A small, hard, sharp-cornered rock fragment, used by natural agents in abrading rock material or land surfaces. Also known as abrasive ground.
(materials)
A material used, usually as a grit sieved by a specified mesh but also as a solid shape or as a paste or slurry or air suspension, for grinding, honing, lapping, superfinishing, polishing, pressure blasting, or barrel tumbling.
A material sintered or formed into a solid mass such as a hone or a wheel disk, cone, or burr for grinding or polishing other materials.
Having qualities conducive to or derived from abrasion. Also known as abradant.

Abrasive

A material of extreme hardness that is used to shape other materials by a grinding or abrading action. Abrasive materials may be used either as loose grains, as grinding wheels, or as coatings on cloth or paper. They may be formed into ceramic cutting tools that are used for machining metal in the same way that ordinary machine tools are used. Because of their superior hardness and refractory properties, they have advantages in speed of operation, depth of cut, and smoothness of finish.

Abrasive products are used for cleaning and machining all types of metal, for grinding and polishing glass, for grinding logs to paper pulp, for cutting metals, glass, and cement, and for manufacturing many miscellaneous products such as brake linings and nonslip floor tile.

The important natural abrasives are diamond, corundum, emery, garnet, feldspar, calcined clay, lime, chalk, and silica, SiO2, in its many forms—sandstone, sand, flint, and diatomite.

The synthetic abrasive materials are silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, titanium carbide, and boron carbide. The synthesis of diamond puts this material in the category of manufactured abrasives.

abrasive

A hard substance for removing material by grinding, lapping, honing, and polishing. Common abrasives include silicon carbide, boron carbide, diamond, emery, garnet, quartz, tripoli, pumice, diatomite, metal shot, grit, and various sands; usually adhered to paper or cloth.
References in periodicals archive ?
* Addition of [Cr.sub.3][C.sub.2]-Ni cermet particles improved the wear resistance of the hardfacings both under two-and three-body abrasive wear conditions by 1.2-9.4 times; this effect was greater in the case of PTAW hardfacings, as well as under the three-body abrasive wear conditions, while the influence of the matrix alloy was insignificant.
Keywords: wear plate, vertical centrifugal casting, metal matrix composites, particle reinforcement, abrasive wear.
The utmost resistance against abrasive wear with adopted steel friction wheel is reached with alloys No.
Brandt, Abrasive wear and metallosis associated with cross-linked polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty., J.
Mccartney, "A comparison of the abrasive wear behavior of iron-chromium based hardfaced coatings deposited by SMAW and electric arc spraying", Wear, vol.
During its lifecycle, Scapharca subcrenata is exposed to a certain degree of abrasive wear and the surface morphology and structure of its left shell are different from those of its right shell (Figures 1(a)-1(b)).
In the classical abrasive wear model proposed by Archard, the wear volume is predicted to be a function of sliding distance, the applied normal load, and the material hardness.
In addition, the company says a variety of tried and tested tip geometries, materials and screw-on gate chambers are available, enabling optimum heat conduction in the gate area to be combined with excellent resistance to abrasive wear even for high-grade filled plastics.
Among the topics are the mechanical properties of kaolin during heating, the critical radius in the effect of transformation toughening of zirconia doped ceramics and cermets, the experimental analysis of steel plasticity parameters during quenching, analyzing abrasive wear in a helical grooved journal bearing, and the tribological behavior of bronze alloys with solid lubricants.
They also resist chunking, cutting and abrasive wear. The wheels are used in applications that need lower noise levels, improved floor protection, and where heavy loads and continuous use cause standard polyurethane wheels to heat up and degrade.