abrasive

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abrasive,

material used to grind, smooth, cut, or polish another substance. Natural abrasives include sandsand,
rock material occurring in the form of loose, rounded or angular grains, varying in size from .06 mm to 2 mm in diameter, the particles being smaller than those of gravel and larger than those of silt or clay.
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, pumicepumice
, volcanic glass formed by the solidification of lava that is permeated with gas bubbles. Usually found at the surface of a lava flow, it is colorless or light gray and has the general appearance of a rock froth.
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, corundumcorundum
, mineral, aluminum oxide, Al2O3. The clear varieties are used as gems and the opaque as abrasive materials. Corundum occurs in crystals of the hexagonal system and in masses. It is transparent to opaque and has a vitreous to adamantine luster.
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, and ground quartzquartz,
one of the commonest of all rock-forming minerals and one of the most important constituents of the earth's crust. Chemically, it is silicon dioxide, SiO2.
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. Carborundum (silicon carbidesilicon carbide,
chemical compound, SiC, that forms extremely hard, dark, iridescent crystals that are insoluble in water and other common solvents. Widely used as an abrasive, it is marketed under such familiar trade names as Carborundum and Crystolon.
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) and aluminaalumina
or aluminum oxide,
Al2O3, chemical compound with m.p. about 2,000°C; and sp. gr. about 4.0. It is insoluble in water and organic liquids and very slightly soluble in strong acids and alkalies. Alumina occurs in two crystalline forms.
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 (aluminum oxide) are important synthetically produced abrasives. The hardest abrasives are natural or synthetic diamondsdiamond,
mineral, one of two crystalline forms of the element carbon (see allotropy), the hardest natural substance known, used as a gem and in industry. Properties
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, used in the form of dust or minuscule stones.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

abrasive

[ə′brās·əv]
(geology)
A small, hard, sharp-cornered rock fragment, used by natural agents in abrading rock material or land surfaces. Also known as abrasive ground.
(materials)
A material used, usually as a grit sieved by a specified mesh but also as a solid shape or as a paste or slurry or air suspension, for grinding, honing, lapping, superfinishing, polishing, pressure blasting, or barrel tumbling.
A material sintered or formed into a solid mass such as a hone or a wheel disk, cone, or burr for grinding or polishing other materials.
Having qualities conducive to or derived from abrasion. Also known as abradant.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Abrasive

A material of extreme hardness that is used to shape other materials by a grinding or abrading action. Abrasive materials may be used either as loose grains, as grinding wheels, or as coatings on cloth or paper. They may be formed into ceramic cutting tools that are used for machining metal in the same way that ordinary machine tools are used. Because of their superior hardness and refractory properties, they have advantages in speed of operation, depth of cut, and smoothness of finish.

Abrasive products are used for cleaning and machining all types of metal, for grinding and polishing glass, for grinding logs to paper pulp, for cutting metals, glass, and cement, and for manufacturing many miscellaneous products such as brake linings and nonslip floor tile.

The important natural abrasives are diamond, corundum, emery, garnet, feldspar, calcined clay, lime, chalk, and silica, SiO2, in its many forms—sandstone, sand, flint, and diatomite.

The synthetic abrasive materials are silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, titanium carbide, and boron carbide. The synthesis of diamond puts this material in the category of manufactured abrasives.

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Engineering. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

abrasive

A hard substance for removing material by grinding, lapping, honing, and polishing. Common abrasives include silicon carbide, boron carbide, diamond, emery, garnet, quartz, tripoli, pumice, diatomite, metal shot, grit, and various sands; usually adhered to paper or cloth.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
During abrasive machining, wood chips and extractives tend to pack between the abrasive particles, thus lowering the effective profile of the tool and obstructing chip flow channels in the abrasive belts.
Menendez in Worcester as vice president and general manager for Saint-Gobain Abrasives North America will be Mark A.
SDK is producing abrasive grains at its Shiojiri Plant in Nagano Prefecture, Japan and at its consolidated subsidiary Lianyungang Zaoling Abrasives Co., Ltd.
Lu also wonders whether Neolithic societies polished jade with diamond, since it would have been a more efficient abrasive than quartz.
The air bubbles in the cured mount may retain abrasives that can scratch the specimens later when finer polishing grits are used.
According to a recently published study report by Market Research Future (MRFR), the Global Coated Abrasives Market is forecasted to garner exponential accruals by 2022 registering a CAGR of 6.3% during the forecast period (2017-2022).
2 November 2018 - US-based private equity firm CenterOak Partners LLC has completed a majority recapitalisation of US-based industrial abrasives distributor GNAP, the firm said.
"This is a good indication that readers find the material informative and appealing," said Rachel Krafft, Sales and Marketing Coordinator for VSM Abrasives. With the next issue to launch this October, "we are inviting everyone in the industry to sign up," said Rachel.
TechNavio's analysts forecast the Global Abrasives market to grow at a CAGR of 5.35 percent over the period 2013-2018.
Norton Abrasives works closely with customers and OEMs to develop optimized solutions for cleaning and finishing needs that reduce abrasive and cutting tool costs linked to automation.
Four main mineral types are used in modern abrasives. Silicon carbide (SO is typically very sharp and tough but also brittle, and is most commonly used with lighter backings on softer substrates.