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a term used in probability theory, logic, epistemology, and law (theory of legal proof). In philosophical and logical-methodological investigations it is most frequently used to characterize knowledge that is valid, conclusive, or indisputable and also as a synonym for truth. In experimental natural science the term “certainty” frequently designates events and judgments that are regarded as empirically confirmed by special experiments or, more broadly, by the social and productive practice of men.

The term acquires a somewhat specialized meaning in probability theory. In so-called subjective, or personal, probability, certainty is most frequently interpreted as a concept reflecting the subject’s confidence in the correctness of his evaluation of the probability that a particular event will occur. From this point of view certainty also expresses the extent of a given individual’s knowledge about the conditions and factors contributing to or counteracting the occurrence of events. In this sense, with the exception of extremely idealized or oversimplified cases, certainty includes a considerable element of uncertainty, inasmuch as exhaustive knowledge about such conditions and factors is practically unobtainable.


References in periodicals archive ?
Rescued from drowning in his car, Paul Anderson wakes up with amnesia, but also with an absolute certainty that, whoever he is, it isn't Anderson.
When you are faced with a decision, make that decision as wisely as possible, then forget about it, for the moment of absolute certainty never arrives.
Even if we didn't report with absolute certainty, we sincerely apologize to those cited in the report and domestic and foreign news organizations that carried the report for having caused enormous impact and sensation at home and abroad,'' the statement said.
Bailey seems shocked that we cannot model the biosphere-ecosphere of an entire planet with absolute certainty.
Told me with absolute certainty that God had NOT spoken to me, because if He had, I would know, as he did, that only members of his Church of God or Christ or Whatever-it-was were the only ones on the true road to salvation and paradise.
Who can say with absolute certainty what constitutes a vote when there are dimples, pregnancies, and hangings?
The trial judge told the jury that they could convict on the basis of something less than absolute certainty of guilt, but did not explain, in essence, how much less.
The Trust and its bondholders still have the same stream of cash they had before, plus an extra benefit: absolute certainty of payment, in place of whatever uncertainty comes with any payment stream backed by real estate.
Drawings of the stone finds are "highly suggestive" of genuine artifacts, says Howell, though he cannot vouch for their authenticity with absolute certainty.
A person throws a stone as fact through air not fact but appearance of fact floating in vacua Blind existential being may possibly not occur at all we know nothing with absolute certainty of existent things not even the single "word" the
On the other hand, when taxpayers require absolute certainty of result when holding the property throughout its economic life, practitioners may need to recommend the traditional method with curative allocations.
If life were merely positive, or if everybody believed with absolute certainty that pious, righteous living would lead to just rewards, then the world would be a much different place.