absolute

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absolute,

in philosophy, the opposite of relative. The term has acquired numerous widely variant connotations in different philosophical systems. It means unlimited, unconditioned, or free of any relation; perfect, complete, or total; permanent, inherent, or ultimate; independent, or valid without reference to a perceiving subject. In epistemology, absolute means certain or indubitable as opposed to probable or hypothetical. As a substantive, the absolute is the ultimate basis of reality, the principle underlying the universe. Theologically, it is synonymous with, or characteristic of, God. Philosophically, it may be considered as the unknowable, the thing-in-itself; as that ultimate nonrelative that is the basis of all relation; as the ultimate, all-comprehensive principle in which all differences and distinctions are merged. The concept of the absolute was present in Greek philosophy. In modern times, both realists and idealists have used the term, but it is, perhaps, most intimately connected with the idealism of G. W. HegelHegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich
, 1770–1831, German philosopher, b. Stuttgart; son of a government clerk. Life and Works

Educated in theology at Tübingen, Hegel was a private tutor at Bern and Frankfurt.
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absolute

[‚ab·sə′lüt]
(meteorology)
Referring to the highest or lowest recorded value of a meteorological element, whether at a single station or over an area, during a given period. Abbreviated abs.

absolute

1. Physics
a. (of a pressure measurement) not relative to atmospheric pressure
b. denoting absolute or thermodynamic temperature
2. Maths
a. (of a constant) never changing in value
b. (of an inequality) unconditional
c. (of a term) not containing a variable
3. Law (of a court order or decree) coming into effect immediately and not liable to be modified; final
4. Law (of a title to property, etc.) not subject to any encumbrance or condition

absolute

In programming, a mathematical function that always returns a positive number. For example, ABS(25-100) yields 75, not -75.
References in classic literature ?
And are we assured, after looking at the matter from many points of view, that absolute being is or may be absolutely known, but that the utterly non-existent is utterly unknown?
But if there be anything which is of such a nature as to be and not to be, that will have a place intermediate between pure being and the absolute negation of being?
But were we not saying before, that if anything appeared to be of a sort which is and is not at the same time, that sort of thing would appear also to lie in the interval between pure being and absolute not-being; and that the corresponding faculty is neither knowledge nor ignorance, but will be found in the interval between them?
This being premised, I would ask the gentleman who is of opinion that there is no absolute or unchangeable idea of beauty-- in whose opinion the beautiful is the manifold--he, I say, your lover of beautiful sights, who cannot bear to be told that the beautiful is one, and the just is one, or that anything is one-- to him I would appeal, saying, Will you be so very kind, sir, as to tell us whether, of all these beautiful things, there is one which will not be found ugly; or of the just, which will not be found unjust; or of the holy, which will not also be unholy?
Then those who see the many beautiful, and who yet neither see absolute beauty, nor can follow any guide who points the way thither; who see the many just, and not absolute justice, and the like,-- such persons may be said to have opinion but not knowledge?
But those who see the absolute and eternal and immutable may be said to know, and not to have opinion only?
The latter are the same, as I dare say will remember, who listened to sweet sounds and gazed upon fair colours, but would not tolerate the existence of absolute beauty.
that a prince possessed of every quality which procures veneration, love, and esteem; of strong parts, great wisdom, and profound learning, endowed with admirable talents, and almost adored by his subjects, should, from a nice, unnecessary scruple, whereof in Europe we can have no conception, let slip an opportunity put into his hands that would have made him absolute master of the lives, the liberties, and the fortunes of his people
But I was soon informed, both by conversation and reading their histories; for, in the course of many ages, they have been troubled with the same disease to which the whole race of mankind is subject; the nobility often contending for power, the people for liberty, and the king for absolute dominion.
Could any further proof be required of the republican complexion of this system, the most decisive one might be found in its absolute prohibition of titles of nobility, both under the federal and the State governments; and in its express guaranty of the republican form to each of the latter.
This spurned the later Fichte's criticism according to which Kant postulated three absolutes without ever identifying their common ground as the real absolute which would have to be the monistic principle of disjunction in its three manifestations.
Traditional ethics, based on a variety of academic schools of thought, was an abstract pursuit of moral absolutes.