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Abu Bakr(ä`bo͞o bäk`ər), 573–634, 1st caliph, friend, father-in-law, and successor of Muhammad. He was probably Muhammad's first convert outside the Prophet's family and alone accompanied Muhammad on the Hegira. The marriage of Abu Bakr's daughter AishahAishah
, c.614–678, third and favorite of the nine wives of Muhammad the Prophet. Her father was Abu Bakr, who became first caliph after the Prophet's death. She was married to the Prophet soon after the Hegira, his only wife that was neither a widow nor a divorcee.
..... Click the link for more information. to Muhammad made the ties even stronger. On the Prophet's death in 632, UmarUmar
, c.581–644, 2d caliph (see caliphate). At first hostile to Islam, he was converted by 618, becoming an adviser to Muhammad. He succeeded Abu Bakr as caliph without opposition in 634. In his reign Islam became an imperial power.
..... Click the link for more information. secured Abu Bakr's election over the tribal chiefs and AliAli
(Ali ibn Abu Talib), 598?–661, 4th caliph (656–61). The debate over his right to the caliphate caused a major split in Islam into Sunni and Shiite branches, and he is regarded by the Shiites as the first Imam, or leader: Shiite derives from the phrase
..... Click the link for more information. . The two years of his caliphate were critical for Islam. Though he was himself fervent rather than warlike, his party crushed opposition in Arabia and began the remarkable extension of Islam as a world religion. He was succeeded by Umar.