Abu Ghraib


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Abu Ghraib

or

Abu Ghurayb

(ä`bo͞o grĕb), infamous prison located in the town of Abu Ghraib, c.20 mi (32 km) W of Baghdad, Iraq. Built by British contractors in the 1960s, it occupies c.280 acres (113 hectares) and is comprised of five separate compounds. During Saddam HusseinHussein, Saddam
, 1937–2006, Iraqi political leader. A member of the Ba'ath party, he fled Iraq after participating (1959) in an assassination attempt on the country's prime minister; in Egypt he attended law school.
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's regime, Abu Ghraib was believed to house thousands of political and other prisoners, many of whom were tortured and executed there.

After U.S. forces captured the prison during the 2003 invasion of Iraq, it was placed under the command of Brig. Gen. Janis Karpinski, who led the 800th Military Police Brigade, and in Aug., 2003, was reopened and used to hold criminals and later those suspected of terrorist activities. In September military intelligence officers assumed control of parts of the facility, and the following month Col. Thomas Pappas, head of the 205th Military Intelligence Brigade, assumed command of the prison. In Oct., 2003, International Red Cross (IRC) inspectors detected "serious violations" of human rights at Abu Ghraib, and the Army's provost marshal reported grave problems there and at other prisons. As early as April and May, however, the IRC and United Nations had raised concerns about the treatment of Iraqi prisoners by U.S. forces. The IRC called some of the violations "tantamount to torture."

In the wake of the events of Sept. 11, 2001 (see 9/119/11,
the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, 2001, in the United States, and the associated events and impact of those attacks.

The attacks, which were carried out by agents of Al Qaeda (a militant Islamic terrorist group led by Osama bin Laden) used three hijacked commercial
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, U.S. President George W. Bush stated (2002) that the Geneva ConventionsGeneva Conventions,
series of treaties signed (1864–1949) in Geneva, Switzerland, providing for humane treatment of combatants and civilians in wartime. The first convention, signed by 16 nations, covered the protection of sick and wounded soldiers and medical personnel
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 would not apply to terrorist detainees, who were deemed "unlawful combatants" instead of prisoners of warprisoner of war,
in international law, person captured by a belligerent while fighting in the military. International law includes rules on the treatment of prisoners of war but extends protection only to combatants.
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; he also insisted that they would be treated humanely. However, the government sanctioned the use of "enhanced interrogation techniques" on real and suspected members of the TalibanTaliban
or Taleban
, Islamic fundamentalist militia of Afghanistan and later Pakistan, originally consisting mainly of Sunni Pashtun religious students from Afghanistan who were educated and trained in Pakistan.
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 and Al QaedaAl Qaeda
or Al Qaida
[Arab.,=the base], Sunni Islamic terrorist organization with the stated goals of uniting all Muslims and establishing a transnational, strict-fundamentalist Islamic state.
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 held at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, including such methods as waterboarding (designed to induce a feeling of drowning), which the U.S. military had long considered a war crime. These techniques seem to have been adapted for use at Abu Ghraib, where the military police were encouraged by intelligence officers to "loosen up" suspects prior to interrogation.

In Jan., 2004, reports by soldiers of abuse at Abu Ghraib led to an Army investigation headed by Maj. Gen. Antonio Taguba, who detailed widespread abuses there in a Mar., 2004, report. Investigations of Abu Ghraib and other Iraqi detention facilities were also conducted and reported by the International Red Cross in Feb., 2004. Beginning in April, reports in the U.S. media explicitly revealed to the public the extent of the physical and sexual abuse of Abu Ghraib detainees, many of whom were civilians who had not been charged; photographs showed the abused, mostly naked Iraqis, some of whom were accompanied by smiling U.S. soldiers. A worldwide outcry followed the release of the photos, and many believe they increased support for the insurgents in Iraq. Later, videotapes of various abuses were also discovered; those and other photographs not seen by the public were described as showing cruel, sadistic, and inhuman acts, including rape, sodomy, and murder.

An Aug., 2004, Pentagon report from a panel chaired by James SchlesingerSchlesinger, James Rodney,
1929–2014, U.S. secretary of defense (1973–75) and secretary of energy (1977–79), b. New York City. After graduating from Harvard (A.B., 1950; A.M., 1952; Ph.D., 1956), he taught economics (1955–63) at the Univ.
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 reported "deviant behavior and a failure of military leadership and discipline" at Abu Ghraib. Subsequently, Karpinski was demoted, Pappas reprimanded and fined, and 11 soldiers convicted of crimes. Only one officer, a reserve lieutenant colonel who had commanded the prison's interrogation center, faced court martial, but he was eventually cleared of all charges. The U.S. Defense Dept. rewrote its handbook on interrogation to ban many of the so-called enhanced techniques that had been sanctioned for use in Afghanistan and Guantánamo Bay, but a 2007 executive order by President Bush continued to permit the CIA to use harsh methods in its interrogation of terror suspects. Abu Ghraib was closed as a U.S. military prison in 2006; the Iraqi government reopened it as the Baghdad Central Prison in 2009.

Bibliography

See M. Danner, Torture and Truth: America, Abu Ghraib, and the War on Terror (2004); S. Strasser, ed., The Abu Ghraib Investigations (2004); K. J. Greenberg, J. L. Dratel, and A. Lewis, The Torture Papers: The Road to Abu Ghraib (2005); J. Jaffer and A. Sing, Administration of Torture: A Documentary Record from Washington to Abu Ghraib and Beyond (2007); P. Gourevich and E. Morris, Standard Operating Procedure (2008); M. Fallon, Unjustifiable Means (2017); studies by S. M. Hersh (2004), D. Levi Strauss and C. Stein (2004), and T. McKelvey (2007); documentaries dir. by R. Kennedy (2007) and E. Morris (2008).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
References in periodicals archive ?
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Police officials say a bomb went off Monday near the house of a local municipal official in Abu Ghraib, killing two of his neighbors and wounding four others.
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A US defense contractor, whose subsidiary was accused of conspiring to torture detainees at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq , has settled with former inmates for over $5m, according to reports on Tuesday,
Philip Gourevich expressed a similar belief in a debate at the New York Public Library about the documentary that he made with Errol Morris, Standard Operating Procedure, when he announced that the Abu Ghraib pictures are about us.
Right now, in a government building in Alexandria, Virginia, the respected US Attorney has started calling witnesses before a secret federal grand jury looking into abuses allegedly committed by CIA interrogators at Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad.
Over six years ago, CBS News anchor Dan Rather introduced to the world the notorious Abu Ghraib photos--to include photos of naked Iraqi prisoners stacked in a pile, a naked Iraqi being led about with a dog leash around his neck, and a hooded prisoner with wires connected to his fingers.