Academism

(redirected from Academic art)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Academism

 

a trend in painting formulated in the art academies of the 16th through 19th centuries and founded on dogmatic adherence to the importance of external forms in classical art.

Academism made possible the systemization of artistic education and the strengthening of classical tradition, which were transformed into a system of “eternal” canons and instructions. Considering contemporary reality unworthy of “exalted” art, academism presented instead timeless and nonnational norms of beauty, idealized images, and subjects remote from reality (from ancient mythology, the Bible, and ancient history), which it emphasized by conventionality and abstraction in modeling, color, and drawing and theatricality of composition, gesture, and pose. As the official school accepted by most monarchies and bourgeois states, academism turned its idealistic aesthetics against progressive national realistic art.

Academism arose at the end of the 16th century in Italy. The Bologna school—which formulated rules for the imitation of the art of antiquity and the Renaissance as well as the French academism of the second half of the 17th and 18th centuries (C. Le Brun and others)—mastered a group of the principles and methods of classicism and served as a model for many European and American academies of fine arts. During the 19th century, the leaders of academism—such as A. Canova in Italy, D. Ingres in France, and F. A. Bruni in Russia—insisted on the emasculated tradition of classicism and fought against the romantics, the realists, and the naturalists but accepted some of the outer aspects of their methods, reducing academism to eclectic salon art. Academism declined under the blows of the realists, including the Russian peredvizhniki (members of the Society of Wandering Exhibitions), and bourgeois individualistic opposition; it was retained only in part at the end of the 19th century and in the 20th century in a group of countries, for the most part in the renovated forms of neoclassicism. The term “academism” is also understood more broadly to mean any canonization or transformation of the ideals and principles of the art of the past into immutable norms. In this sense one speaks of the academism of several schools of Hellenistic and Roman sculpture, which canonized the heritage of the ancient Greek classics, or of a group of modern artists who have tried to revive the concepts of schools and currents which have become historically outdated.

A. M. KANTOR

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
THE ELECTIVE AFFINITY between French and American thought that Nesbit detects may be no more than a shared coolness toward the German philosophical tradition that has dominated academic art history since the nineteenth century.
Gedo describes Camille Monet's theatrical costume as a prop in an elaborately constructed modernist conceit in which Monet and his spouse capitalized on the fad for Japonisme to poke fun at the coy eroticism of French academic art. If so, their private joke backfired in the public venue of the critical press.
Though its reputation in the United Kingdom improved as it was rebroadcast, it continued to be regarded with suspicion by academic art historians.
Although people often describe Kurelek's paintings as "folk art," this is oversimplified, says Andrew Kear, who offers another term instead: "manufactured naivete." Kurelek did in fact have some academic art training.
Amira Zahid, founder of Dahesh Museum of Art, on the perfection of 19th-century academic art
Expert advice from both the commercial and academic art world is often required and experts' credentials should include membership of officially approved associations; vetting committees for major international art fairs; and their acting as consultants to major museums and collectors.
Vicente spent his childhood in Madrid, attending a Jesuit school and receiving a traditional academic art education.
It began with the pioneering effort of Aina Onabolu (1882-1963) who ventured into the academic art of the Western world in an attempt to dispel the Western notion that an African is incapable of rendering the accuracy found in Western drawing and painting.
The campus started out as a non-academic, technical school, but through time it has transformed into a full fledged academic art institute.
It was a rich man's folly, designed to house Hartford's collection of academic art and as a riposte to the orthodoxy of modernism, but it failed on both counts.
At the same time, academic art began to reappear on the walls of museums, including the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, where Nymphs and Satyrs now proudly hangs for all--even women and children--to see.

Full browser ?