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A data record containing an identification, a digital signature from a third party who is believed to be trustworthy, attesting to the authenticity of the identity, and an encryption key which provides a basis for two unknown entities to establish a shared encryption.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(1) A document attesting to some fact, such as the seaworthiness of a ship or an individual’s inoculations prior to travel abroad.

(2) The name of a special state loan bond, such as a certificate of a state workers’ savings bank issued in the USSR in 1927.

(3) An insurance certificate, a document outlining the conditions of an insurance agreement and taking the place of an insurance policy.

(4) In foreign trade, a certificate of quality, a document issued by competent authorities to certify the quality of merchandise. In the USSR certificates of quality are issued by the Chamber of Commerce and Industry.



(svidetel’stvo), in the USSR, a document that certifies some legal fact, for example, a birth or a divorce. The certificate attests only to legal facts that must be confirmed according to some law or juridical document. The form and requisites of the certificate are established by a special juridical document, and failure to observe them may lead to the legal invalidation of the certificate. The content of the certificate may be disputed only in court. In some cases, a certificate may have a special name, for example, diplom (certificate issued to the holder of an academic degree) or attestat dotsenta (attestation issued to the holder of the rank of docent).



(Russian udostoverenie), a document certifying specific facts or rights, for example, that travel is on official business or that the bearer holds the right to vote. Certificates are printed on standard forms, signed by authorized officials, and confirmed with a seal. Certain certificates require a photograph of the bearer. Soviet legislation (for example, art. 196 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR) establishes criminal responsibility for the forging of a certificate for the purpose of obtaining rights or a release from duties established by the government.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
"Historically, we have always done checks on our members' applications to ensure their academic certificates are not fake or are from an unaccredited university," said Mr Tawfiqi yesterday.
In 2008, eight Bahrainis were reportedly named in a list of people who had allegedly bought fake academic certificates from the US.
The great novelist's school and academic certificates until his graduation in the Faculty of Arts, are among the displayed documents in the exhibition.
Transgender activist Audrey Ithibu Mbugua has won a battle against the Kenya National Examinations Council after the Appellate court upheld a decision compelling them to change her academic certificates to reflect 'her' new identity.The Court of Appeal said they were not persuaded by Knec to overturn the High Court's decision, which ruled in Audrey's favour.
Dr Al Jowder, head of the committee, said that the panel has so far accredited 90 academic certificates obtained from Chinese universities and rejected 94 others deemed flawed academically.
I am worried more about the academic certificates of the children.
'It is important that the details are mentioned correctly on academic certificates which are used by students throughout their lives.
The cabinet reviewed the fourth report of the committee charged with examining the academic certificates of civil servants and residents, referring to an explanation presented by the Minister of Education and Minister of Higher Education Dr.
Though the district education officer wasn't available, his assistant confirmed that the degree verification was under way to check the genuineness of the academic certificates.
The document must be included academic certificates (Attempt wise certificates), metric certificate, one passport size photograph, Computerized National Identity Card, Undertaking on Judicial Stamp paper, PMDC Registration, character certificate for the institute last attended and employment exchange certificate in the requirement of house job.
Oman's Chamber of Commerce and Industry has issued a circular on the concern of fake academic certificates. It has asked private sector companies to accredit employee certificates through the Ministry of Higher Education.

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