Academism


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Academism

 

a trend in painting formulated in the art academies of the 16th through 19th centuries and founded on dogmatic adherence to the importance of external forms in classical art.

Academism made possible the systemization of artistic education and the strengthening of classical tradition, which were transformed into a system of “eternal” canons and instructions. Considering contemporary reality unworthy of “exalted” art, academism presented instead timeless and nonnational norms of beauty, idealized images, and subjects remote from reality (from ancient mythology, the Bible, and ancient history), which it emphasized by conventionality and abstraction in modeling, color, and drawing and theatricality of composition, gesture, and pose. As the official school accepted by most monarchies and bourgeois states, academism turned its idealistic aesthetics against progressive national realistic art.

Academism arose at the end of the 16th century in Italy. The Bologna school—which formulated rules for the imitation of the art of antiquity and the Renaissance as well as the French academism of the second half of the 17th and 18th centuries (C. Le Brun and others)—mastered a group of the principles and methods of classicism and served as a model for many European and American academies of fine arts. During the 19th century, the leaders of academism—such as A. Canova in Italy, D. Ingres in France, and F. A. Bruni in Russia—insisted on the emasculated tradition of classicism and fought against the romantics, the realists, and the naturalists but accepted some of the outer aspects of their methods, reducing academism to eclectic salon art. Academism declined under the blows of the realists, including the Russian peredvizhniki (members of the Society of Wandering Exhibitions), and bourgeois individualistic opposition; it was retained only in part at the end of the 19th century and in the 20th century in a group of countries, for the most part in the renovated forms of neoclassicism. The term “academism” is also understood more broadly to mean any canonization or transformation of the ideals and principles of the art of the past into immutable norms. In this sense one speaks of the academism of several schools of Hellenistic and Roman sculpture, which canonized the heritage of the ancient Greek classics, or of a group of modern artists who have tried to revive the concepts of schools and currents which have become historically outdated.

A. M. KANTOR

References in periodicals archive ?
The rejection of European academism as fin de race and the concomitant rise of new paradigms date to the early twentieth century, when primitivism (both the Cubist and the German Expressionist variety) knocked the academy out cold.
Clearly competing with the Futurists for social and cultural capital, Lewis and Pound wrote of Marinetti's movement in the past tense, dismissing it as "a picturesque, superficial and romantic rebellion of young Milanese painters against the Academism which surrounded them" (Pound 1914a, 143).
When Sinclair Lewis, in accepting the Nobel Prize for literature in 1930, railed against both academism and the genteel writers who had previously dominated American life and letters, he was quite directly attacking men like Matthews.
School of Business Administration (Kobe University), (often abbreviated to SBA-Kobe 1994) A Challenge to an Open Academism (in Japanese), School of Business Administration, Kobe University, Kobe, 1994.
Pierre Boulez in his composer rather than conductor mode swallowed it all and turned it into the new academism, and to boot managed to usurp the near totality of the musical slice of the French national budget's 1 percent devoted to the arts.
Academism invaded government departments, the schools and institutions.
this last paradoxical idea underlines the vitality of his preaching and the avoidance of academism (55).
Enlightened academism that embodies the best elements of the past but responds to the needs of the present, is a natural phase in the evolutionary process, when a temporary halt is made, and when it becomes necessary to consolidate the innovations.
But the main reason why Dutch literature did not wholeheartedly embrace and incorporate Beat writing has already been hinted at: the literary, social, and spiritual revolution of the Fiftiers had made such a good job of liberating Dutch literature from academism and formalism that by the end of the 1950s most Beat writing came too late in the day for many Dutch writers.
009-0025" Doctoral Training at the University of Plovdiv for Competence, Creativity, Originality, Realization and Academism in Science and Technology - 2 (DOCTORANT - 2) "
009-0025-C01 under the project "Doctoral training at the University of Plovdiv for Competence, Creativity, Originality, Realization and Academism in Science and Technology 2 (DOCTORANT - 2), funded by the Operational Program "Science and Education for Smart Growth" of the Ministry of Education and Science, co-financed by the European Union through the European Structural and Investment Funds, Priority Axes "Education and Lifelong Learning" Grant Grant BG05M2OP001-2.