Bastin and Williams (1914) mentioned a fish spine in a calcareous nodule from the Eastport Formation, and the acanthodian
Nosto lepis sp.
Coates and colleagues Samuel Davis and John Finarelli found answers to this mystery in an unexpected place: the acanthodians
, extinct fishes that generally left behind only tiny scales and elaborate suites of fin spines.
Unfortunately, identifying the specific taxa that produced them is not possible, but their association with various fossils from acanthodian
, actinopterygian, sarcopterygian, and rhipidistian (crossopterygian) fish suggests that any of these are potential sources of the coprolites and nonspiraled cololites.
biostratigraphy and interregional correlations of the Devonian of the Baltic States, Belarus, Ukraine and Russia // Palaeozoic Vertebrate Biochronology and Global marine/Non-Marine Correlations / A.
The remains of the acanthodian
Haplacanthus sp., tristichopterid ?Eusthenopteron sp.
The so-called 'Atholville Beds' (Dineley and Williams 1968), exposed at Campbellton and Atholville, have been examined by paleontologists since 1881 and have yielded ostracoderms, arthrodires, acanthodians
and chondrichthyans (Whiteaves 1881, 1889; Woodward 1889, 1892; Traquair 1890, 1893).
Apart from the dipnoan tooth plates, small acanthodian
scales with deep bases and rhomboid smooth crowns were found in etched limestone residues from the Voskresenskoye quarry.
Joined by Romer in the second week, they found an amazing quantity of fossil vertebrate remains --significant material of acanthodians
, arthrodirans, chondrichthyans, dipnoans, and tetrapodomorph fishes --but it was marine in origin and did not include any tetrapod fossils.
The other braincase, from a species called Acanthodes, dates to a hundred million years after the Acanthodian
group came into existence, casting most of this period of the group's evolution into shadow.
Gagnier, Paris, acanthodian
expert and member of expedition to Canadian Arctic islands in 1994.
The only author, who provided detailed descriptions of acanthodian
assemblages of the Parnu RS in the Baltic area, is J.
occurs together with Thelodus parvidens, a cyathaspid (Archegonaspis sp.), and remains of two acanthodian