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Related to Accidents: road accidents
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also external injuries; in Russian, travmatizm), the totality of external injuries, or traumas, in a given population over a given time. The rate of such injuries is an important indicator of the effect of social conditions on public health.

Changing conditions are reflected in the new categories of accidents recorded. In the 20th century, accidents have taken third place, after cancer and cardiovascular diseases, as a cause of death in the economically developed countries. The principal victims of accidents are children, adolescents, and young adults. Among 15- to 30-year-old males, accidents are the principal cause of illness, disability, and death. In the classification of injuries by type of accident, industrial (including agricultural) accidents are distinguished from nonindustrial ones (including motor vehicle, home, and sports accidents).

The growing rate of industrial accidents in most countries is related to the growth of heavy industry. The adoption of preventive measures in this area depends on various social and technological factors. In the USSR and the other socialist countries, plans and legislative measures for the prevention of industrial accidents are jointly implemented by the administrative bodies of enterprises, labor unions, and medical establishments.

The increase in nonindustrial accidents in the second half of the 20th century is due primarily to the rapidly growing rate of motor vehicle accidents, with their high incidence of crippling and fatal injuries. The growing rate of home accidents, particularly among children, is a consequence of urbanization and the common use of mechanical and electrical home appliances. Improved safety engineering and public health education can prevent such nonoccupational accidents. The prevention of accidents among children and adolescents is more difficult because of the level of physical activity and states of mind that are characteristic of these age groups. Preventive measures for this population are based on regular organized leisure-time activities; instruction in traffic safety rules must be included. Injuries resulting from athletic accidents have become more numerous with increased participation in sports and more intensive training; such accidents may be prevented by using scientific findings and by providing for medical inspection in the arrangement of training and competitive events.

In a significant number of cases, accidents are caused by impaired motor coordination and delayed reaction to external stimuli due to fatigue, illness, or drunkenness.


Loginova, E. A. Ocherki po istorii bor’by s travmatizmom v SSSR. Moscow, 1958.
Nazarenko, I. T. Proizvodstvennyi travmatizm i zhiznennyi uroven trudiashchikhsia SShA. Moscow, 1961.
Freidlin, S. Ia. Profilaktika travmatizma i organizatsiia travmatologicheskoipomoshchi, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1963.
Dubrov, la. G. Posobiepo travmalologii. Moscow, 1973.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
This accident, with the loss of my insurance, and with the more serious loss of my hair, the whole of which had been singed off by the fire, predisposed me to serious impressions, so that, finally, I made up my mind to take a wife.
While I stood bewildered at the suddenness of this accident, (which might have happened, nevertheless, to any one under the sun), and while I still continued incapable of sight, I was accosted by the Angel of the Odd, who proffered me his aid with a civility which I had no reason to expect.
(Indeed, two very necessary words were clearly dropped by accident.) An editor might have corrected "Wickliffe's 'Epigoniad' " to "Wilkie's 'Epigoniad'," but is unlikely to have added "Tuckerman's 'Sicily' " to the list of books read by the narrator.
With the exception of the terrible details, Jackson's story of his accident was the same as that I had already heard.
"When you testified at the trial, you didn't point out that Jackson received his accident through trying to save the machinery from damage?" I said.
They will charge him four dollars and twenty cents a year on a thousand-dollar accident policy, and for the same policy they will charge a laborer fifteen dollars."
If she slipped, by accident, from off the Spit, she fell in where there's foothold at the bottom, at a depth that would barely cover her to the waist.
It's a sore thing to do between such near friends; but if I get the dirdum[23] of this dreadful accident, I'll have to fend for myself, man.
Since my unfortunate accident I have preserved the keenest interest in politics.
It was about a week after the accident in Pendleton Woods that Pollyanna said to her aunt one morning:
John Pendleton had met with an accident," said Miss Polly, a little stiffly; "but--I do not care to be sending jelly to John Pendleton, Pollyanna."
Had an accident then happened to the sledge, the travellers, attacked by these beasts, would have been in the most terrible danger; but it held on its even course, soon gained on the wolves, and ere long left the howling band at a safe distance behind.