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(ä`chā), special region (1980 pop. 2,875,634), 21,387 sq mi (55,392 sq km), N Sumatra, Indonesia, formerly known as Atjeh or Achin. The capital and largest city is Banda Aceh. The northernmost province of Sumatra, Aceh has rich petroleum and natural gas deposits as well as valuable rubber, oil palm, and timber resources. The Acehnese, like most Indonesians, are Muslim, but are generally more conservative. Gunung Leuser National Park is in SE Aceh.

A kingdom in N Sumatra is recorded by the 6th-cent. A.D. Chinese. By the 8th cent. Islam had arrived, and a number of Muslim kingdoms and sultanates were subsequently established in the region. Aceh (Achin) reached the height of its power in the early 17th cent. The Dutch gained control of the coast in 1873 and engaged in a partly successful effort to subdue the interior until c.1910.

Aceh also resisted Indonesian control and in 1959 was designated a special region with autonomy in religion, culture, and education. Late in 1976 the Movement for a Free Aceh declared the province independent but was suppressed; guerrilla warfare resumed in the late 1980s and continued through the rest of the century. A peace agreement providing for greater Acehnese autonomy was signed in 2002, but with neither side willing to compromise, Indonesia ended the subsequent talks in 2003, imposed martial law (reduced to a state of emergency in 2004 and ended in 2005), and launched new attacks against the rebels.

Many coastal areas in Aceh were devastated by an intense offshore earthquake and resulting tsunami in Dec., 2004; some 166,000 died in the province. In the aftermath, the rebels and government held a series of talks aimed at ending the fighting. A new peace accord, calling for the rebels to disarm, government forces to be reduced, and for local self-government to be established in Aceh, was signed in Aug., 2005. Some 15,000 people are believed to died as a result of the conflict. An autonomy law for Aceh was passed by the Indonesian parliament in 2006, and the first government under it was elected later in the year. Parts of N Aceh were devastated by an earthquake in Dec., 2017, but the damage was much less extensive and deadly than in 2004.

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an autonomous region of N Indonesia, in N Sumatra; mountainous with rain forests; scene of separatist conflict since the later 1990s; coastal areas suffered badly in the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004. Capital: Banda Aceh. Pop.: 3 930 905 (2000). Area: 55 392 sq. km (21 381 sq. miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
"Dampak Kerusakan akibat Gempa Bumi & Tsunami di Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam".
As the last Southeast Asian port of call for pilgrimages to the holy land, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam has been known for centuries as Serambi Mekah ('The Porch of Mecca') (9) and as a centre of Islamic knowledge.
Pertamina has a concession block operated by its own unit - Pertamina Upstream - covering seven oil and gas operation areas: Nangroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD); the Northern Sumatra Operation Area, with the main office in Rantau; the Central Sumatra Operating Area, with the main office in Jambi; the Southern Sumatra Operation Area, with the main office in Prabumulih; the Western Java Operation Area, with the main office in Cirebon; the Eastern Java Operation Area, with the main office in Cepu; the Kalimantan Operation Area, with the main office in Balikpapan; and the Papua Operation Area, with the main office in Sorong.
The government planned to implement a special autonomy law known as ''Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam,'' in which it will introduce Islamic Syaria Law and allow a greater share of revenue from its natural resources to be redirected to Aceh.
Through this system, the industry and trade minister determined PT Pupuk Iskandar Muda (PIM) to be responsible for distribution of urea fertilizer in Nangroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD) and North Sumatra.
As favored by the majority of Acehnese, the province's name will be changed to Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam.
Coffee is grown in Indonesia by farmers and plantation companies mainly in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, North Sumatra, West Sumatra, South Sumatra, Lampung, Bengkulu, East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and East Nusa Tenggara.
The protesters also demanded the Netherlands renounce a decision in the late 19th century making Aceh part of the then Dutch East Indies, currently Indonesia, and "restore the sovereignty status of the 'Aceh Darussalam State' to guarantee a legitimate government." According to official figures, violence in Aceh has claimed 211 lives since May, most of them civilians, and has forced more than 100,000 people to flee their homes and seek refuge in mosques and school buildings.
PTPN I, which is located in Nangroe Aceh Darussalam, has oil palm plantations making up 58% of its total plantations in acreage.
Kota Baru Kota Jambi Schedule for project Completion April 2010 Table - 1 Development of HTI, 1999-2003 (Ha) Woodworking Year Pulp HTI Non trans Trans TIP CWP 1999 85,744 24,448 27,301 2000 58,152 7,960 13,637 2001 56,299 6,276 4,397 2002 87,614 5,707 8,166 2003 100,497 14,128 4,627 Year [HPHTC.sup.*] Self management 1999 -- 1,169 2000 -- 2,569 2001 -- 500 2002 1,121 15,900 2003 1,456 3,983 Table - 2 Realization of HTI projects by province, 1999-2003 Width of plantation annually (Hectare) No Province 1999 2000 2001 1 Nangroe Aceh Darussalam 959 472 19 2 North Sumatra 2,358 1,022 3,028 3 West Sumatra 315 -- -- 4 Riau 51,014 29,429 30,208 5 Jambi 23,007 16,294 15,569 6 South Sumatra 4,085 6,431 1.683 7 Bangka and Belitung -- 1,000 -- 8 Benkulu -- 150 -- 9 Lampung -- 92 580 10 D.I.
The areas are located in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Java, Bali, West and East Nusa Tenggara and Sulawesi.