The BC pellicles were produced by Acetobacter xylinum
NUST4.2 as described elsewhere .
Saiki, "Cellulose synthesized by acetobacter xylinum
in the presence of acetyl glucomannan," Cellulose, vol.
Levan is another microbial EPS, obtained from Acetobacter xylinum
NCIM 2526, that has been used for the synthesis of Ag-NPs and Au-NPs with catalytic activity, tested by reduction of 4-nitrophenol and methylene blue .
Studart's group members and first authors Patrick R'hs and Manuel Schaffner used the bacteria Pseudomonas putida and Acetobacter xylinum
in their work.
Yodsuwan et al., (22) also have reported that mannitol and fructose enhanced the cellulose yield of Acetobacter xylinum
strain TISTR 975.Gluconoacetobacter hansenii yielded cellulose in the range of 0.81g/ L to 0.84 g/ L in standard HS medium after a period of 14 days (39).
Bio-fibers of the substrate are produced with bacteria (mainly acetobacter xylinum
) and plant-derived materials like coconut milk and grain mash via bio-fermentation technology.
coli (with maximum of oxygen depleted after 1 min), lactate as best hydrogen donor for Gluconobacter oxydans (with maximum dissolved oxygen depleted in 2 minutes) and lactate and a-glycerophosphate as best hydrogen donors for Acetobacter xylinum
(maximum oxygen dissolved oxygen depleted after 5 minutes).
Figure 2(a) shows the nanofiber (diameters about 30-60 nm) of BC biosynthesis by Acetobacter xylinum
and the length ranging from several microns to several ten microns.
Catchmark, "Formation and characterization of spherelike bacterial cellulose particles produced by acetobacter xylinum
JCM 9730 strain," Biomacromolecules, vol.
Similarly, in Komagataeibacter xylinus (formerly Acetobacter xylinum
) A-L interface biofilms, growth is limited to a top layer of 50-100 [micro]m by [O.sub.2] diffusion from above and nutrient diffusion from below .
For example, bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Acetobacter xylinum
is used in food processing because of its chemically pure form of cellulose, high water holding capacity and tensile strength, high fiber content, and low cost.
Brown, "Characterization of genes in the cellulose-synthesizing operon (acs operon) of Acetobacter xylinum
: implications for cellulose crystallization," Journal of Bacteriology, vol.