Achaean League


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Related to Achaean League: Aetolian League, Belgic confederacy

Achaean League

(əkē`ən), confederation of cities on the Gulf of Corinth. The First Achaean League, about which little is known, was formed presumably before the 5th cent. B.C. and lasted through the 4th cent. B.C. Its purpose was mutual protection against pirates. The Achaeans remained aloof from the wars in Greece until they joined the opposition to Philip II of Macedon in 338 B.C. The confederation was dissolved soon after. The Second Achaean League was founded in 280 B.C. Sicyon was freed from the rule of its tyrant in 251 B.C., and it soon joined the confederation under the leadership of AratusAratus,
d. 213 B.C., Greek statesman and general of Sicyon, prime mover and principal leader of the Second Achaean League. His objective at first was to free the Peloponnesus from Macedonian domination, and he is credited with bringing into the confederation many of the
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. Other cities outside Achaea were incorporated on terms of equality, and in 247 B.C. the Macedonians were driven from Corinth. There was some promise of liberating all Greece, but unfortunately the interference of Cleomenes IIICleomenes III,
c.260–219 B.C., king of Sparta (235–221 B.C.). He was probably the most energetic king Sparta ever had, a conscious imitator of Agis III (see under Agis). In his determined effort to restore the prestige of the city, he began (227 B.C.
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 of Sparta threatened the Achaean League, and in 227 B.C. he began a war. The Achaean League then requested (224 B.C.) Macedonian aid against Sparta and the Aetolian League. The result was the eclipse of the confederation until the wars between Macedon and Rome. In 198 B.C. the Achaeans went over to Rome and with Roman aid won practically the whole Peloponnesus, forcing Sparta and Messene to join. Later suspecting the Achaeans of again looking toward Macedon, the Romans deported (168 B.C.) their leaders (including PolybiusPolybius
, 203? B.C.–c.120 B.C., Greek historian, b. Megalopolis. As one of the leaders of the Achaean League and a friend of Philopoemen, he was influential in Greek politics.
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) to Italy. In 146 B.C. the Romans waged a war against the Achaeans and easily triumphed at Corinth. The Romans dissolved the confederation, thereby ending Greek liberty.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Achaean League

 

federation of ancient Greek cities in the Peloponnesos. The Achaean League was a union of the 12 settlements of Achaea (hence the name of the league). During the last third of the fourth century B.C. it disintegrated. Around 280 B.C. it was reborn as an anti-Macedonian federal state, which included the four Achaean city-states, and in 275 it was joined by Aegium (which became the center of the Achaean League) and soon by all of Achaea. In 251 B.C., Sicyon joined the league, after which, under Aratus (second half of the third century), who united Corinth, Epidaurus, Megara, and other cities, the league began to flourish.

There was no predominant city in the Achaean League; those cities which belonged to the league enjoyed internal autonomy. The supreme power belonged to the assembly of league citizens, which assembled twice a year at Aegium. Each city that was a member of the Achaean League had one vote in this assembly. The assembly decided the most important matters and elected the highest officials: a strategus (general), with the right of reelection after one year; a navarch (the head of the fleet); and a hipparch (the head of the cavalry). The Achaean League had an all-league court. The league’s expenditures were covered by fees from the separate cities; the cities also provided military contingents. The Achaean League minted its own coins and had its own uniform system of measures.

During the rule of Aratus the Achaean League achieved the elimination of the Macedonian hegemony in the Peloponnesos. But the reforms of Cleomenes III in Sparta and the resulting agrarian movement in the Peloponnesos frightened the oligarchs. After having called upon the Macedonian king Antigonus III Doson for aid against Sparta, Aratus surrendered the league to the power of Macedonia (221 B.C.). During the war of Rome against Macedonia (200–197) the Achaean League, led by Philopoemen, became allied with Rome, and subsequently on several occasions was utilized by Rome in order to put down liberating and social movements in various areas of Greece (in Boeotia, Sparta, and others). However, the Achaean League’s growing strength and the inclusion of Sparta, Elis, and Messene in the league alarmed the Romans. They began to interfere actively in its affairs, which evoked resistance by the Achaean League. After its defeat by the Romans in 146 B.C., the Achaean League was dispersed. Later in its place and in that of the neighboring territories the Roman province of Achaea was formed.

REFERENCE

Ranovich, A. B. Ellinizm i ego istoricheskaia rol’. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950.

N. N. PIKUS

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Achaean League

federation of Greek cities formed in 280 B.C. to resist Macedonian domination. [Gk. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 6]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In 196 BCE, the Romans joined the Achaean League in their fight against the Macedonian king, Philip.
His relations with the Roman authorities as hipparch of the Achaean League, in 170/69 BC, during the Third Macedonian War, were true to these principles.
(5.) The Achaean League was also analyzed favorably by James Madison and Alexander Hamilton in their advocacy for the ratification of the United States Constitution ("Federalist No.
Indeed, the recurrence of the same public benefits and needs has revived the form of the Aetolian and Achaean leagues. The Greeks established such alliances out of necessity, since they had to protect themselves against the enormous power of the Romans.
Dittenberger and Beasley suppose that Fabius thus specified the ninth month of the official calendar of the old Achaean League, by which months were designated strictly by ordinal numerals.
Sulpicius Galba and its citizens were sold into slavery; Philip however secured their release.(73) This benefaction confirmed the strong loyalty of the Dymaeans, and at the meeting of the Achaean League in 198 in which alliance with Rome and her allies against Philip was debated, they were among those who refused to betray the king and join the hated Romans.
Principal wars: Rebellion of Andriscus (149-148); war against the Achaean League (146); Iberian pacification (143-142).
Birth and early career unknown; as praetor in Macedonia, he suppressed the revolt of Andriscus, pretender to the Macedonian throne, and made the country into a Roman province (149-148); attacked the Achaean League to avenge an insult to a Roman envoy at Corinth (Korinthos) (146); after a successful campaign, he returned to Rome where he was granted a triumph and awarded the honorific "Macedonicus" for his subjugation of Macedonia; elected consul (143), he subdued the Celtiberians in northern Spain, except for the Numantines and the Termantines (143-142); politically moderate, he opposed Tiberius Sempronius Grachus, the controversial plebeian tribune (133); in concert with fellow censor, Q.
Old Pleuron was supposedly sacked during the Demetrian War of 239-229 between Macedon and an alliance of the Aitolian and Achaean Leagues. Although we know little about this war, it is reasonable to assume that the citizens of Pleuron would have been able to foresee its coming and have adequate time to prepare for a possible invasion.
(22) In short, the Demetrian War against the Aitolian and Achaean Leagues accomplished little for Macedon and may even have been deemed an outright failure.