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(ăk'əmĕn`ĭdz), dynasty of ancient Persia. They were descended presumably from one Achaemenes, a minor ruler in a mountainous district of SW Iran. His successors, when ElamElam
, ancient country of Asia, N of the Persian Gulf and E of the Tigris, now in W Iran. A civilization seems to have been established there very early, probably in the late 4th millennium B.C. The capital was Susa, and the country is sometimes called Susiana.
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 declined, spread their power westward. Cyrus the GreatCyrus the Great
, d. 529 B.C., king of Persia, founder of the greatness of the Achaemenids and of the Persian Empire. According to Herodotus, he was the son of an Iranian noble, the elder Cambyses, and a Median princess, daughter of Astyages.
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 established the Persian rule by his conquest of AstyagesAstyages
, fl. 6th cent. B.C., king of the Medes (584–c.550 B.C.), son and successor of Cyaxares. His rule was harsh, and he was unpopular. His daughter is alleged to have married the elder Cambyses and was said to be the mother of Cyrus the Great, who rebelled against
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 of MediaMedia
, ancient country of W Asia whose actual boundaries cannot be defined, occupying generally what is now W Iran and S Azerbaijan. It extended from the Caspian Sea to the Zagros Mts.
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. The Achaemenids (c.550–330 B.C.) were important for their development of government administration, the appearance of literature written in cuneiformcuneiform
[Lat.,=wedge-shaped], system of writing developed before the last centuries of the 4th millennium B.C. in the lower Tigris and Euphrates valley, probably by the Sumerians (see Sumer).
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, and the spread of ZoroastrianismZoroastrianism
, religion founded by Zoroaster, but with many later accretions. Scriptures

Zoroastrianism's scriptures are the Avesta or the Zend Avesta [Pahlavi avesta=law, zend=commentary].
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; during this period there was also a great flourishing of Persian art and architecturePersian art and architecture,
works of art and structures produced in the region of Asia traditionally known as Persia and now called Iran. Bounded by fierce mountains and deserts, the high plateau of Iran has seen the flow of many migrations and the development of many
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. The Achaemenid rulers after Cyrus were Cambyses II, the impostor Smerdis, Darius I, Xerxes I, Artaxerxes I, Xerxes II, Sogdianus, Darius II, Artaxerxes II (opposed by Cyrus the Younger), Artaxerxes III, Arses, and Darius III. The dynasty ended when Darius III died in his flight from Alexander the Great.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a dynasty of rulers of the ancient Persian state (558–330 B.C.) founded by Achaemenes, leader of a union of Persian tribes. Cyrus II (the Great), a descendant of Achaemenes who ruled in Parsa and Anshan (North Elam) from 558 to 530 B.C., founded a huge empire uniting most of the countries of the Near and Middle East. In 550–549, Medea was seized; the next three years saw the conquest of countries that had formed part of the Medean state. Lydia and the Greek cities of Asia Minor were seized in 546; much of Middle Asia was conquered between 545 and 539, Babylonia in 539, and Egypt in 525; and Thracia, Macedonia, northwest India, and the islands of the Aegean Sea were conquered between 519 and 512.

The rulers after Cyrus II were Cambyses II (530–522), Darius I (522–486), Xerxes I (486–465), Artaxerxes I (465–424), Xerxes II (424), Sogdianus (424–423), Darius II (423–404), Artaxerxes II (404–358), Artaxerxes III (358–338), Arses (338–336), and Darius III (336–330). The capitals of the Achaemenid state were Persepolis, Babylon, Susa, and Ecbatan.

The Achaemenid Empire, an oriental despotocracy, was governed by a complex bureaucratic system formed during the reign of Darius I. The state was divided into 20 military administrative districts (satrapies), each headed by special administrators (satraps); the satraps were obliged to collect from the populace and pay to the Persian king heavy taxes (in money and in kind), which were especially ruinous in areas where the populace had to resort to moneylenders in order to pay them.

In its ethnic composition and social structure, the Achaemenid Empire was heterogeneous. In the cities of Asia Minor, in Babylonia, Phoenicia and Egypt, slave labor was widely used in agriculture and crafts, whereas the backward regions of Thracia, Macedonia, and the nomadic Arab and Scythian tribes were in a stage of disintegration of their tribal structure. The Persian administration preserved the ancient local laws, religions, monetary systems, writing systems, and languages in the conquered countries. The Persians themselves were freed from taxes and forced labor. The Persian kings, their relatives, the satraps, and the nobility had huge estates worked by slave labor.

As the military powers of the Achaemenids weakened, their state began to disintegrate. The Greco-Persian Wars of 500–449 B.C. attested to the decline of the Persian Army. In 330 B.C., under the blows of the army of Alexander of Macedonia, the Achaemenid state ceased to exist.


D’iakonov, M. M. Ocherk istorii drevnego Irana Moscow, 1961.
Dandamaes, M. A. Iran pri pervykh Akhemenidakh Moscow, 1963.
Struve, V. V. Eliudy po istorii Severnogo Prichernomor’ia, Kavkaza, i Srednei Azii Leningrad, 1968.
Olmstead, A. T. History of the Persian Empire Chicago, [1948].
Huart, C, and L. Delaporte. L’Iran antique, Elam et Perse . . . Paris, 1943.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
It acquired an official status in the Achaemenid Empire as a religious holiday of Zoroastrianism.
Its main layer is racist originating from the ancient Achaemenid Empire. A Neo-Persian Sasanian empire was defeated by the Arabs (Islam) in 637 AD.
The more important one is racism originating from the ancient Achaemenid Empire. The Neo-Persian Sasanian Empire was defeated by the Arabs (Islam) in 637 AD and the latter were led by the most brilliant Arab general of the time, Khaled ibn al-Walid.
That person, who later was proclaimed Shah (king) founded the Safawi dynasty whose Persian allies helped develop as an extension of the ancient Achaemenid Empire (see this in Google).
Apadana means a grand hall supported by columns, the most famous example of which is Persepolis, the ancient ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid empire in modern Iran.
Thanks to the groundwork laid by such proto-novelists as Ctesias in his Persica and Xenophon in his Cyropaedia, by the mid-fourth century BCE Achaemenid Persia had already became enshrined for the Greeks as "a literary landscape suited to tales of erotic intrigue: the sort of romantic escapades commonly found in the Greek novel." (9) Indeed, three of the six surviving full-length Greek novels take place in the Achaemenid Empire, a fact perhaps best explained when we acknowledge that throughout the first two centuries CE Persia, now under Parthian rule, continued to play a decisive role in Roman international politics and that for many Greek authors, the Achaemenid past found its reflection in the Parthian present of drawnout wars and protracted diplomacy.
"The Cyrus Cylinder and Ancient Persia" showcases this 2,600-year-old archaeological treasure amid other artifacts from the Achaemenid Empire (550--331 BC) founded by the Persian ruler Cyrus the Great.
For example, Alvey talks about the relevance of Balk as a referent to the Achaemenid Empire and to Alexander's conquest.
the GreatAAEs triumph over Persian king Darius III at the Battle of Gaugamela, which ultimately led to the demise of the Achaemenid Empire.
This is the case with the story of the Aryan migrations towards India and is true in relation to Gandhara in the Achaemenid Empire. Similarly, Swat makes an interesting chapter in the Hellenistic history of ancient Pakistan as Sir Aurel Stein observes, "It can be shown to have been the scene of important events in that arduous campaign by which Alexander the Great prepared his way west of the Indus for the triumphant invasion of the Punjab."
Achievements such as Simon Hornblower's recently completed commentary on Thucydides or Amelie Khurt's compendium of sources for the Achaemenid Empire are as learned and encompassing as anything to have emerged from a 19th-century German university: if not quite 'possessions for all time', then very nearly so.
In Esther, the story is told how Jews throughout the Achaemenid empire were saved from a subtly planned murderous anti-Semitic pogrom that reminds one of the Holocaust.