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(ä`chā), special region (1980 pop. 2,875,634), 21,387 sq mi (55,392 sq km), N Sumatra, Indonesia, formerly known as Atjeh or Achin. The capital and largest city is Banda Aceh. The northernmost province of Sumatra, Aceh has rich petroleum and natural gas deposits as well as valuable rubber, oil palm, and timber resources. The Acehnese, like most Indonesians, are Muslim, but are generally more conservative. Gunung Leuser National Park is in SE Aceh.

A kingdom in N Sumatra is recorded by the 6th-cent. A.D. Chinese. By the 8th cent. Islam had arrived, and a number of Muslim kingdoms and sultanates were subsequently established in the region. Aceh (Achin) reached the height of its power in the early 17th cent. The Dutch gained control of the coast in 1873 and engaged in a partly successful effort to subdue the interior until c.1910.

Aceh also resisted Indonesian control and in 1959 was designated a special region with autonomy in religion, culture, and education. Late in 1976 the Movement for a Free Aceh declared the province independent but was suppressed; guerrilla warfare resumed in the late 1980s and continued through the rest of the century. A peace agreement providing for greater Acehnese autonomy was signed in 2002, but with neither side willing to compromise, Indonesia ended the subsequent talks in 2003, imposed martial law (reduced to a state of emergency in 2004 and ended in 2005), and launched new attacks against the rebels.

Many coastal areas in Aceh were devastated by an intense offshore earthquake and resulting tsunami in Dec., 2004; some 166,000 died in the province. In the aftermath, the rebels and government held a series of talks aimed at ending the fighting. A new peace accord, calling for the rebels to disarm, government forces to be reduced, and for local self-government to be established in Aceh, was signed in Aug., 2005. Some 15,000 people are believed to died as a result of the conflict. An autonomy law for Aceh was passed by the Indonesian parliament in 2006, and the first government under it was elected later in the year. Parts of N Aceh were devastated by an earthquake in Dec., 2017, but the damage was much less extensive and deadly than in 2004.

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an autonomous region of N Indonesia, in N Sumatra; mountainous with rain forests; scene of separatist conflict since the later 1990s; coastal areas suffered badly in the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004. Capital: Banda Aceh. Pop.: 3 930 905 (2000). Area: 55 392 sq. km (21 381 sq. miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The sampling sites were the west coast of Pulau Aman, Penang, Malaysia (Pulau Aman); the east coast of Banda Acheh, Sumatra, Indonesia (Banda Acheh); and the east coast of Lhokseumawe.
The airline has been bridging communities in underserved markets such as Bandung, Banda Acheh, Trichy and Hat Yai which no other airline services.
Kuala Lumpur, May 27 (ANI): The power behind the tsunami, which killed hundreds of thousands in Acheh in 2004, was AL-ARQAM founder, the late Ashaari Muhammad, his widow Hatijah Aam has claimed.
And there are no moves to make it a part of their criminal law except in Acheh and that recently.
In Acheh, which was then the major centre of Islamic learning in the archipelago, he was initiated into the Qadriyyah tariqah (sufi order / brotherhood) by Shaykh Nur ad-Din ar -Raniri (Azra 2006: 66).
Over the more than 130 years since the arrival of Panglima Kuning, who came to Sabah from the state of Perak, and Dayang Acheh, who arrived from Brunei, their descendants have repeatedly intermarried so that today the majority are interrelated.
In his early work on Hamzah Fansuri, a sixteenth century sufi metaphysician of Acheh, al-Attas explains the semantic change initiated by Hamzah's use of the Malay words ada and titah, pointing out that it reveals "no mere change in the Malay conception of the nature of being or existence, but a change, at once drastic and radical, in the whole conceptual system purporting to give a vision of the Universe." Thus, the word ada, al-Attas argued, which in pre-Islamic times simply meant 'to be' and conveyed the concept of existing materially or physically much like in the sense of the Arabic mawjud and the Parmenidean space-occupying 'to pleon', was given new meanings reflecting a new worldview.
The Sejarah Melayu tells about the divine origins of Pau Gelang (one of the Kings of Champa), Champa's relationship with Majapahit, the destruction of Champa, and the escape of two Cham princes to Acheh and Melaka.
See generally Peace Women, Women, Peace, and Security: Acheh (Indonesia), (last visited Mar.
As I heard this, I remembered Ryamizard Ryacudu, the Indonesian army chief who openly admitted that in the month after the tsunami his men had killed 120 members of the Free Acheh Movement (Gerakan Acheh Merdeka, or GAM).
The government is planning to send another batch of more than 100 personnel to boost its current 300-plus troops now stationed in Acheh.
The Batu Ferringhi site faces the Andaman Sea and therefore has the most direct effect from the Tsunami that destroyed Bandar Acheh. Interestingly, the floating Mosque at the adjacent Tanjung Bungah Beach was virtually untouched while the buildings on the beach suffered severe damages from the effect of Tsunami (see Figs.