tuberculatum venom can be grouped basically into proteins involved in insect metabolism (annexin B9, nucleoside diphosphate kinase; aconitate
hydratase; superoxide dismutase; triose phosphate isomerase; glyceraldehyde-3phosphate dehydrogenase; succinyl-CoA ligase; fructosebisphosphate aldolase; arginine kinase; citrate synthase; enolase; ATP synthase; 4-hydroxybutyrate coenzyme A transferase; medium-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase); transport protein (transferrin); and structural proteins (cyclophilin, actin, and chitinase).
TCA cycle was strongly disturbed since (iso)citrate, aconitate
, a-ketoglutarate, succinyl-CoA, and malate concentrations were increased, and fumarate and succinate concentrations were decreased in PAD (Figure 1(b)).
SXSM-enhanced TCA cycle due to increased aconitate
hydratase, succinyl-CoA ligase (GDP-forming) subunit alpha and beta (SUCLG1/2) and succinyl-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) subunit beta (SUCLGA2), isocitrate dehydrogenase2, and dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (DLAT, PDHB).
In parotid, the proteins ATP synthase subunit alpha (F1LP05) and ATP synthase subunit beta, mitocondrial (P10719), were downregulated and malate dehydrogenase, cytoplasmic (O88989), and aconitate
hydratase (G3V6S2) were unique in the control group.
The 1 mL reaction system containing 40 mM TrisHCl (pH7.5) and 100 [micro]M NaCl was used, and the reaction was initialized with 200 [micro]M aconitate
. Immediately after the substrates were added, the absorbance of the reactions was measured at 340 nm ([A.sub.340]) on a spectrophotometer at a 30 s interval for 3 min and repeated for three times.
The buffers and the 20 enzyme systems analyzed were; 1) Clayton & Tretiak (1972) buffer: Aspartate amino transferase (AAT; 126.96.36.199), Aconitate
hydratase (ACO; 188.8.131.52), Malic enzyme (ME; 184.108.40.206), Glycerol-3phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH; 220.127.116.11), Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH; 18.104.22.168), Malate dehydrogenase (MDH; 22.214.171.124), Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (6PGD; 126.96.36.199), Phosphoglucomutase (PGM; 5.4.
Its toxicity is caused by sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA), which inhibits aconitate
hydratase, one of the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme (LEE et al., 2012).
Carboxylates (such as malate, aconitate
, malonate, oxalate, tartrate, citrate, and isocitrate) are commonly the major charge-balancing anion present in the cell vacuoles of photosynthetic tissues and several of these carboxylates get associated with high metal concentrations in plants [84-86].
bicolor homologues to aconitate
hydratase of Oryza sativa Japonica Q6YZX6.1 9 gi/242051769 Hypothetical protein 69904/6.23 Sorbidraft of S.
The strains isolated were typed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis using eight enzymatic systems: malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC188.8.131.52), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, EC184.108.40.206) with substrate NAD and NADP, malic enzyme (ME, EC220.127.116.11), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, EC18.104.22.168), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6GPDH, EC22.214.171.124), Aconitate
hydratase (ACON, EC126.96.36.199), and hexokinase (HK, EC2.71.1) .
Three (30%) patients were suspected to have mitochondriopathy based on biochemical parametres which included elevated lactate in urine or plasma, elevated alanine in plasma amino acids, urine GC-MS showing elevation of one or more of the following compounds; Pyruvate, Succinate, Fumarate, Citrate and Aconitate
(a metabolite in Kreb's cycle).