In these models, the influence of the helicoid is caused by centrifugal effects of the vortex that results in pressure drops and acoustic power
dissipation giving rise to a dipole sound field.
Where k (M) proportionality constant of convection effect, pj is the steam jet density (kg/[m.sup.3]), [u.sub.j] is the discharge velocity (m/s), D is the diameter of the outlet cross section (m), p0 is the density of the surrounding medium (kg/m3), c0 is the velocity of sound in the surrounding medium (m/s), m is the experimental constant, n is the experimental constant.The final expression for calculating the total level of acoustic power
generated by a steam discharge from a power generating boilers is,
The exterior noise power (ENP) around the vehicle is defined as the acoustic power
radiated to the far-field and then can be calculated as an integration of the far-field acoustic intensity over a closed surface which encloses the vehicle at large distance from vehicle.
Now, normalizing the incident acoustic power
to unity-that is, setting a*a = 1, then the reflected acoustic power
is given by the value of the first part of Eq.
here I is sound pressure intensity, W/[m.sup.2]; W is acoustic power
, W; S is surface area through which during particular time acoustic power
permeates, [m.sup.2]; p is sound pressure in specific point; [rho] is air density, kg/[m.sup.3]; c is the speed of sound wave, m/s.
where the reference acoustic power
is [P.sub.0]=10-12 W.
The brainchild of musician Edmundo Jones, he hopes it will give a platform to those who consider their music as 'acoustic power
In this paper, a similar formulation is used but using acoustic power
propagating along a duct as the state variables rather than the acoustic pressure, see Figure 2.
The radiated acoustic power
, which is the integration of the active intensity over the surface of plate, is defined by
The acoustic power
associated with each bottom detection also was converted to acoustic backscatter intensity and used to derive an estimate of the scintillation index, SI, which is defined here as
of 10 mW, 100% duty cycle and 1 s exposure time were chosen for sonication treatment.
With the radiators placed in an opposing fashion vibration is eliminated, turning the energy into acoustic power