The maximum length of the acromion process
was measured as the antero-posterior distance along the long axis.
The socket had openings at the location of the acromion process
. The first opening was in the front of the body socket and was directed in the horizontal plane anterior to the subject's chest.
The markers were affixed to the following anatomical landmarks using double-sided tape: seventh cervical and tenth thoracic vertebrae, suprasternal notch, sternum body, sacrum, posterior superior iliac spine, anterior superior iliac spine, acromion process
, medial and lateral epicondyles, styloid process of the radius and ulna, lateral end of the second and fifth metacarpal bones and distal phalange of the second digit.
Anthropometric data (stature, height to right acromion process
and lateral epicondyle of the right humerus) were collected, and the height of the midpoint of the upper arm was calculated to determine the appropriate working heights.
Retroflective markers were placed bilaterally on the head of the first metatarsal, posterior calcaneous, lateral malleolus, lateral femoral condyle, anterior superior iliac spine, sacrum, acromion process
, lateral humeral epicondyle, and ulnar head, as well as wand markers placed on midthigh and midshank (Helen Hayes marker system) (10) for gait analysis.
Common locations for CML are around the knee, distal tibia, proximal humerus, acromion process
of the scapula, and the end of the clavicle.
Mid-arm circumference (MAC) was measured at the mid-point between the olecranon and acromion process
. Body fat was estimated by the method of Durnin and Womersley (14).
of scapula has been classified by many researchers into three types.
Using a 0.3 T magnetic resonance (MR) system AIRIS II (HITACHI Tokyo, Japan), the CSAs of the elbow flexion muscles were calculated using T1-weighted cross-sectional images of the upper arm at 50% area between the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and the acromion process
of the scapula (spin echo method; repetition time, 700 ms; echo time, 20 ms; slice thickness and slice space, 10 mm).
For triceps brachii, the electrodes were placed parallel to the muscle fibers, about 2 cm laterally from the midline of the arm (i.e., half way between the acromion process
and the olecranon process).
Here a distal continuation of the scapular spine namely acromion process
or processus hamatus as like as cattle (McLeod et al.; Sisson et al.), which was thick, pointed and was not over hanged to the glenoid notch.
The examiner aligned the fixed arm of the UG parallel with a horizontal reference line between the patient's sternal notch and acromion process
; the movable arm was aligned with the midline of the patient's nose.