Actinobacillus

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Actinobacillus

A genus of gram-negative, immotile and nonspore-forming, oval to rod-shaped, often pleomorphic bacteria which occur as parasites or pathogens in mammals (including humans), birds, and reptiles. They are facultatively aerobic, capable of fermenting carbohydrates (without production of gas) and of reducing nitrates. The genomic DNA contains between 40 and 47 mol % guanine plus cytosine. The actinobacillus group shares many biological properties with the genus Pasteurella. See Pasteurella

Actinobacillus (Pasteurella) ureae and A. hominis occur in the respiratory tract of healthy humans and may be involved in the pathogenesis of sinusitis, bronchopneumonia, pleural empyema, and meningitis. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans occurs in the human oral microflora, and together with anaerobic or capnophilic organisms may cause endocarditis and suppurative lesions in the upper alimentary tract. Actinobacilli are susceptible to most antibiotics of the β-lactam family, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, and many other antibacterial chemotherapeutics. See Antibiotic, Medical bacteriology

Actinobacillus

[‚ak·tə·nō·bə′sil·əs]
(microbiology)
A species of gram-negative, oval, spherical, or rod-shaped bacteria that are of uncertain affiliation; coccal and bacillary cells are often interspersed, giving a “Morse code” form; species are pathogens of animals, occasionally of humans.
References in periodicals archive ?
An in vitro study of the co-cultivation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. M.S.D Indiana University School of Dentistry, 1992.
Update on Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in human periodontal disease.
Adiponectin inhibits osteoclast formation stimulated by lipopolysaccharide from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol.
Quantitative real-time PCR using TaqMan and SYBR green for actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, tetQ gene and total bacteria.
(11) The gram-negative bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (formerly Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola are strongly implicated in the etiology of periodontal disease.
Risk factors for and indicators of periodontitis were classified so: presence of bacteria (actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, bacteroides forsythus, porphyromonasgingivalis, treponemadenticola), heredity, race, ethnicity, advanced age, compromised host defense, systemic diseases, diabetes, stress, history of periodontitis, inadequate margins on crowns and dental restorations, poor oral hygiene, male gender, tobacco smoking (Drisko, 2000).
Phenotypic variation in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans during laboratory growth; implication for virulence.

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