That these London Modernists were not entirely free of Romanticism's curse strikes a parallel with a Parisian group admired by Hulme: the Catholic royalists represented by the polemical paper L'Action francaise
. (58) With these writers, Hulme shared a radical impetus that hovered between retrograde thirst for authority and subversive hunger for cultural renovation.
The Cagoule became a hodgepodge of individuals frustrated with less extremist right-wing organizations like royalist Action francaise
. They maintained an insurrectionist agenda even after many political leagues embraced modern politics to gain influence and reorganized into parties, particularly during the left-wing Popular Front coalition government in the 1930s.
He has a penchant for early-twentieth-century French and Italian fascist thinkers, such as Charles Maurras (of the Action Francaise
) and Julius Evola, a sinister figure who admired Heinrich Himmler and worked for the German police during World War II.
Maritain distanced himself from Bergsonianism and for a while under the influence of his priest moved towards the nationalist, neo-royalist group Action francaise
.' The leader of Action francaise
, Charles Maurras, was an atheist who espoused positivism, but at the same time on the strength of a cultural nationalism called for Frenchmen to return to their traditional Catholic faith, including a belief in Original Sin.
Charles Maurras was a leading figure of the anti-democratic right in France for more than 50 years, and his highly polemical paper, Action francaise
, was bitterly critical of everything the liberal democratic West now values, whether cultural pluralism, political equality, or what Maurras mocked as the human-rights heritage of the French Revolution.
Chapters on France include Peter Bemardi's "French Jesuits and the Action Francaise
," which discusses the role of the Jesuits Pedro Descoqs, Pierre Rousellot, and Cardinal Louis Billot, who sympathized with the royalist, anti-Semitic group that was subsequently condemned by Pius XI in 1926.
To varying extents, all three get in touch with the Action francaise
: Laurent adheres to it only briefly while in high school but reads a lot about it; Blondin has monarchist acquaintances during the occupation; Nimier develops a nationalist imagery and filters nationalism in a literary way (Dambre, "Les Hussards et TAction francaise").
Among specific topics are a reassessment of Jesuits and Portuguese conversos, Jesuits and the history of Judaism in China, French Jesuits and Action Francaise
, and American Jesuit support of Father Charles E.
Charles Maurras, leader of the deeply reactionary Action Francaise
, saw Coubertin's Olympics as a liberal Anglo-Saxon plot to undermine racial vigour and native pride.
Their cause could encompass that of Charles Maurras' movement, at least prior to the pontifical condemnation of L 'Action francaise
in 1926, but extended far beyond.
Historians of antisemitism in France have looked upon the Restoration (1814-30) and July Monarchy (1830-48) as comprising a tranquil period, particularly when compared with the tumultuous and bitter fin-de-siecle Dreyfus Affair, the rise of the Action Francaise
and French fascism, the restrictive policies of the Vichy regime, and the Nazi Holocaust.
Protagonista de l'Action francaise
de postguerra, intentara realizar en el royalisme una reflexion economica y desplegar un conjunto de actividades en funcion de concretizar nucleos asociativos de productores--en 1920--, por ejemplo, creando la Confederation de l'Intelligence et de la Production francaise.