To say that private companies should be allowed to conduct active countermeasures is not to say that this right should be unlimited or that the practice should be unregulated.
We envision active countermeasures in only two contexts.
Just because we are exploring the potential of active countermeasures does not mean we should neglect the standard passive techniques of computer security.
We should set up oversight structures and licensing so that private companies can experiment with active countermeasures ("hack-back").
Northrop Grumman is a leading player in active countermeasures
and its Electronics and Systems Integration Division builds the ALQ-135 jammer (used on the F-15) and the ALQ-162 Shadowbox CW jammer (found on a variety of platforms).
The company is responsible for the majority of the active countermeasures
systems used by German Air Force and Navy combat aircraft.
New on-board active countermeasures techniques have been developed that are effective against the advanced threats, some of which are discussed in literature. Of particular significance are those angle deception schemes shown to be effective against monopulse radars - cross-polarization, cross eye, sea bounce and off-board countermeasures being good examples.
The use of the monopulse seeker complicates the response, as most traditional active countermeasure techniques are ineffective, and can in fact become beacons for home-on-jam (HOJ) tracking.
The decoy is considerably less weapon dependent than on-board active countermeasures. However, the factors affecting decoy effectiveness are surprisingly similar.
Flyalong decoys and the coordinated use of decoys and on-board active countermeasures are presently under study.
There is currently renewed interest in directed energy and power managed active countermeasures to create more optical interference more efficiently.
These earlier smart weapons could be countered by causing optical break lock, wherein the active countermeasure system forces the missile to lose guidance, "go ballistic" and miss its target.