Recent advances in solar cell technology use polycrystalline perovskite films as the active layer
, with an increase to efficiency of as much as 24.2%.
That zone of surface freeze-thaw is the active layer
," Yarmak explains.
The layer of ice that forms above the permafrost every winter, and thaws in the summer is called the 'active layer
The sensors feature an IP66 seal and a very thin active layer
with a thickness of 0.5 mm, while a double-sided adhesive layer allows for easy assembly.
To the best of our knowledge, this material has not been used as a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) active layer
for the detection of metal ions.
is the uppermost layer of soil alternately freezing and thawing in the presence of permafrost at its base .
"We take an approach where we actually make the luminescent active layer
Because the active layer
had quaternary ammonium group distribution and allowed a stronger repulsion for [Ca.sup.2+] than [Na.sup.+].
When the device is forward biased, the carriers flow into the active layer
and recombines with each other to enhance emitting light.
The ions move through a layer of amorphous chalcogenide material (the active layer
) to reach the lower potential electrode where they are reduced to their metallic form and eventually form a conductive pathway between both electrodes that spans the active material layer, lowering the device resistance." (3)
The substrate material is p-type semi-insulating (SI) GaAs whereas the active layer
is of n-type GaAs.
Ambipolar transport is dependence of the first active layer
thickness ([F.sub.16]CuPc, fluorinated copper phthalocyanine) in an [F.sub.16]CuPc/CuPc (copper phthalocyanine) heterojunction, and only n-channel operation is observed when [F.sub.16]CuPc films are over a critical thickness of ~12 nm.