Participle

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Related to Active participle: Future participle, Passive participle

participle

Participles are words formed from verbs that can function as adjectives or gerunds or can be used to form the continuous tenses and the perfect tenses of verbs. There are two participle forms: the present participle and the past participle.
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Participle

 

a verb form combining the properties of both verb and adjective and expressing adjectivally an action or state as a property of a person or object, as in pishushchii (“writing”), podniatyi (“raised”), and sgibaemyi (“flexible”). In Russian, the verbal nature of a participle is evidenced by the presence of the categories of voice and aspect and by the retention of patterns of government adjoinment (primykanie); this is seen by comparing dolgo rabotaet v pole (“he works long in the field”) and dolgo rabotaiushchii v pole (“the man working long in the field”). A participle does not form a sentence, however, except in the case of the short forms, and lacks the categories of mood and person. It possesses the category of relative tense, which refers not to the moment of speech, as with a verb, but to the time of the main action as expressed by the conjugated verb of the predicate. A participle resembles an adjective in having the agreement categories of gender, number, and case. Like adjectives, participles have the syntactic function of defining, which may be parenthetic (parenthetic attribute construction). Participles may undergo adjectivization, that is, become adjectives.

Participles are present in all the Indo-European languages and are a special grammatical subclass in other language families, such as Finno-Ugric, Altaic, and Semitic. In contemporary linguistics there is no unanimously held opinion concerning the grammatical nature of the participle.

V. A. VINOGRADOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Dalman notes that in the perfect and active participle the -n occasionally occurs as well before an object suffix (1905: 360, 380).
As already discussed in respect of example (10) and (11), repeated here as (21), nominalizations derived from passive participles receive both process and result interpretations, while nominalizations of the active participle only get the result interpretations.
Both the active participle susuvams- and the middle participle susvana- are used in a resultative sense, which can become stative in the meaning 'having pressed soma (and now keeping it ready)' (Kummel, ibid.
This is another subjunctive form, consisting of the D-stem active participle [delta] msielen 'asking (pl.
Although it is indisputable that the Aramaic active participle developed from an atemporal progressive to a present, or at least to the base of a grammatical construction for the present tense (e.
That this is a more accurate translation is suggested both by the position of the nouns "sun" and "Alexander" as well as the use of active participles indicating a recurring action to describe the journey through the window of heaven.
Some of these have retained the MidAr present active participle in both general and actual usage, e.
Traditionally, a writing such as jrt can be an infinitive ("to do"), a past active participle in the feminine singular ("who has done"), a past passive participle in the feminine singular ("what has been done"), and a suffix conjugation equivalent to jr.
It is demonstrated that Iraqi Arabic da-, qa(d) < ga'id, "sitting," and North African ka probably < ka'in, the active participle of kan, "to be.
30) The active participle differs in form from Hebrew only in loss of the pretonic vowel in the plural: e.
Concerning the participial forms of SH-W-Q, Genequand understands the first instance to be an active participle and the second to be a passive participle.
For example, the active participle is regularly expected to refer to the present, but in Cairene dialect, for example, wakil, the active participle of the verb 'akal, yakul "to eat" most often means "having eaten" rather than "eating," whereas hasis means "feels" right now.