Another hypothesis is that, in the same manner as the CTLA-4 vesicular trafficking, also in the context of autophagy in lymphocytes, LRBA would compete with clathrin adapter proteins
, regulating this process.
Through adapter proteins, such as the IRS, converts class I isoforms phosphorylate membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) (28).
These substrates play an essential role in the transmission of intracellular signaling through their interaction with the Grb2 adapter protein via a specific recognition of the SH2 and SH3 domains, characterizing a pleiotropic effect of the insulin (49).
Mal and MyD88: adapter proteins
involved in signal transduction by Toll-like receptors.
The inhibitory effects of Ser/Thr phosphorylation are implemented by different ways (Figure 1), including dissociation of IRS from the insulin receptor, converting it to an inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinase activity, attenuation of tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS, increased degradation of IRS, or releasing it from the complexes with the adapter proteins
Pessin, "Interactions between Src homology (SH) 2/SH3 adapter proteins and the guanylnucleotide exchange factor SOS are differentially regulated by insulin and epidermal growth factor," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
The adapter protein CrkII mediates the formation of multiprotein signaling complexes in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli and regulates cytoskeleton dynamics, cell motility, and phagocytosis in a Racl-dependent manner [34, 44, 45].
Also the adapter proteins
FADD and NEMO appear to be crucial for TNF-alpha-induced necroptosis .
The adapter proteins
in the complex activate key signaling pathways.
In the first section, contributors describe epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) and their role in the ontology and maintenance of tumor tissues, detailing recent advances in the understanding of their molecular biology, including the intrinsic tyrosine kinase catalytic function and molecular interactions with other structures containing signaling adapter proteins
. They also detail research on anti- apoptotic mitogenic and metabolic signaling systems, signaling pathways, crosstalk between insulin and EGFRs, and the temporal dynamics of EGFR signaling in quantitative proteomics.