Once TLR4 recognize the PAMPs, it triggers the recruitment of adaptor molecules
(MAL) and initiates downstream signaling which leads to the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-[kappa]B).
Objective: Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) act as adaptor molecules
, decoding messenger RNA and delivering the correct amino acid to the growing peptide chain.
They discuss innate antiviral responses in invertebrates and Toll-like receptors (TLR) in vertebrates, as well as the phylogenetic relationship of pathogen sensing, the downstream adaptor molecules
, and the functional consequences; nucleic acid sensing pathways, alternative regulator mechanisms of TLR signaling RIG-I-like receptors, the contribution of LGP2 to antiviral immunity, mitochondrial immune signaling complex and DNA sensors, and the complexities of downstream signaling, the adaptor molecules
involved, and the regulatory pathways; and the molecular mechanisms by which pathogens such as poxviruses, HIV, and influenza evade host innate immune mechanisms, the viral virulence factors responsible, and their interactions with the innate immune sensors.
TLR4 protein is activated by the binding of ligand (s) which leads to the recruitment of adaptor molecules, including myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88) (Akira and Takeda 2004).
qRTPCR confirmation of array data and TLR4 downstream adaptor molecules.
3] exposure, transcript levels of the adaptor molecules Myd88 and Tri[florin] were up-regulated in OuJ mice compared with the three other treatment groups (OuJ controls and both air- and 03-exposed HeJ mice; Figure 1C,D), similar to changes found previously for Tlr4 mRNA expression (Kleeberger et al.
TLRs, adaptor molecules and their signaling pathways.
This leads to the recruitment, through the TIR, of adaptor proteins like the myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88), the Toll/IL-1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), the Toll/ IL-1 receptor domain containing adaptor inducing interferon-beta (TRIF), and the TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM) (Figure 2).
While many TLRs signal through MyD88, TLR3 and a subset of TLR4 activation events are known to signal through a MyD88-independent pathway, involving the adaptor molecule
TRIF [TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-[beta]].