Adelgidae


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Related to Adelgidae: Phylloxeridae, lace bugs

Adelgidae

 

a family of herbivorous insects of the order Homoptera. The body measures 0.5–1.5 mm in length. Winged individuals have two pairs of wings that fold rooflike when the insect is at rest. The body of wingless and of some winged individuals is covered with a waxy down. The mouthparts are of the sucking type, with a segmented proboscis. The family embraces approximately 40 species, which are distributed in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere; the USSR has 20 species.

The Adelgidae live only on coniferous trees. As a result of their stings, spruce trees form galls that resemble small pine cones. The life cycle is often complex; winged and wingless generations alternate, and the insects change host plants. Both winged and wingless females deposit eggs.

Some species of the Adelgidae live on host plants of two species and have a two-year cycle of development. These insects winter on the primary host (spruce) as larvae and in the spring become stem-mothers, whose stings cause gall formation. Migration to the secondary host (fir, larch, or pine) is observed in the second generation. The next year the insects produce a generation of winged females, which return to the primary host and deposit fertilized eggs. Adelgidae that inhabit a single species of tree produce two to four generations annually and reproduce only by parthenogenesis.

Adelgidae damage forest and park conifers. The most harmful species are Adelges viridis, A. abietis, A. laponicus, and A. pinifoliae.

B. R. STRIGANOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
The gall-inducing Cecidomyiidae seems to have evolved directly from detritivorous/mycetophagous ancestors, while other insect groups have evolved from: spores/pollen feeders (such as Thysanoptera: Phloeothripidae); plant sap feeders (as Hemiptera: Adelgidae, Eriosomatidae, Psyllidae, and Coccidae); foliage feeders (as Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae); stem borers (as Hymenoptera: Cephidae); leaf miners (as Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, and Diptera: Tephritidae and Agromyzidae); and from zoophage parasitoids (as Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) (Roskam, 1992).
of Main groups galling families) Nematoda Tylenchida (4) Heteroderidea Mcloidogynidae Anguinidae Arthropoda Trombidiformes (4) Tarsoncmidae Eriophyidae Thysanoptera (2) Phlacothripidae Thripidae Hemiptera (11) Psylloidea (a) Aphididae Phylloxeridae Adelgidae Coccoidea (a) Coleoptera (8) Curculionoidae (a) Hymenoptera (5) Cynipidea Chalcidoidea (a) Tenth rcdinidae Lepidoptera (20) Tortricoidea (a) Diptera (6) Cecidomyiidae Phylum Order (n.
Low lethal temperature for hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae).
Hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae): stylet bundle insertion and feeding sites.
Reshaping the ecology of invading populations of hemlock wooly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae), in eastern North America.
Establishing Pseudoscymnus tsugae Sasaji and McClure (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) for biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Homoptera: Adelgidae), in the eastern United States.
Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an exotic insect species capable of rapidly reducing populations of eastern hemlock throughout the eastern United States (McClure & Fergione 1977; Buck et al.
Field survey and evaluation of native and established predators of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae) in the southeastern United States.
Role of wind, birds, deer, and humans in dispersal of hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae).
Regional responses of hemlock woolly adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae) to low temperatures.
This diaspidid often co-exists with the exotic hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Armand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), throughout the northern United States (McClure 2002), where they cause extensive damage to eastern hemlock and threaten to disrupt forest composition.