adenine

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adenine

(ăd`ənĭn, –nīn, –nēn), organic base of the purinepurine,
type of organic base found in the nucleotides and nucleic acids of plant and animal tissue. The German chemist Emil Fischer did much of the basic work on purines and introduced the term into the chemical literature in the early 20th cent.
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 family. Adenine combines with the sugar riboseribose
, monosaccharide carbohydrate of universal distribution in living tissue, found in ribonucleic acid (RNA; see nucleic acid), free nucleotides, and various coenzymes.
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 to form adenosine, which in turn can be bonded with from one to three phosphoric acid units, yielding the three nucleotides adenosine monophosphateadenosine monophosphate
(AMP) , organic compound composed of an adenine base, the sugar ribose, and one phosphate unit. AMP is one of the possible products of the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and is therefore important in the transfer of chemical energy during
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, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine triphosphateadenosine triphosphate
(ATP) , organic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of
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. These adenine derivatives perform important functions in cellular metabolism. Adenine is one of four nitrogenous bases utilized in the synthesis of nucleic acidsnucleic acid,
any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
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. A modified form of adenosine monophosphate is thought to be a secondary messenger in the propagation of many hormonal stimuli. Adenine is an integral part of the structure of many coenzymescoenzyme
, any one of a group of relatively small organic molecules required for the catalytic function of certain enzymes. A coenzyme may either be attached by covalent bonds to a particular enzyme or exist freely in solution, but in either case it participates intimately in
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.

adenine

[′ad·ən‚ēn]
(biochemistry)
C5H5N5 A purine base, 6-aminopurine, occurring in ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid and as a component of adenosine triphosphate.
References in periodicals archive ?
Methods for the determination of adenosine triphosphate and other adenine nucleotides.
Magnesium Green has been used in non-imaging studies to determine the ATP-ADP exchange rate through the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide transporter in isolated mitochondria (Chinopoulos et al.
Hitherto, the putative components include the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) or porin, localized in the OMM; the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) in the IMM; the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor and the Bcl-2 family proteins; the hexokinase boundtoporin; the cyclophilin-D(Cyp-D), a regulatory element in the matrix; glycogen synthase kinase-3b (GSK-3b); and cytochrome c [121-123].
Halestrap, "Role of critical thiol groups on the matrix surface of the adenine nucleotide translocase in the mechanism of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore," Biochemical Journal, vol.
The methods used for simultaneous separation of Cr compounds and adenine nucleotides generally include two types of protocols: (1) isocratic elution of these compounds in an organic solvent-free buffer followed by stepwise switch to another buffer contaning acetonitrile or methanol and (2) typical gradient elution method where Cr derivatives are eluted in isocratic conditions and adenine nucleotides by organic solvent gradient elution.
The steady-state levels of ADP and ATP reflect well-known diffusion restrictions for adenine nucleotides (see for review Vendelin et al.
To measure the secretory response of the platelets obtained from experimental subjects, the platelets were activated with 2[micro]M collagen and the level of secretion was measured in terms of release of serotonin, adenine nucleotides, PPi, and Pi (Figure 1).
Methotrexate and sulfasalazine promote adenosine release by a mechanism that requires ecto-5'-nucleotidase-mediated conversion of adenine nucleotides.
Methodological aspects on the firefly luciferase assay of adenine nucleotides in whole blood and red blood cells.
De novo synthesis of adenine nucleotides in different skeletal muscle fiber types.
Regardless of which model is utilized, the constraints on the diffusion of adenine nucleotides make phosphagen systems critical in the motility of many primitive-type spermatozoa.
Because under normoxic conditions, the concentrations of the adenine nucleotides in the rat kidney are 3 mmol/L ATP, 0.