adenine

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adenine

(ăd`ənĭn, –nīn, –nēn), organic base of the purinepurine,
type of organic base found in the nucleotides and nucleic acids of plant and animal tissue. The German chemist Emil Fischer did much of the basic work on purines and introduced the term into the chemical literature in the early 20th cent.
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 family. Adenine combines with the sugar riboseribose
, monosaccharide carbohydrate of universal distribution in living tissue, found in ribonucleic acid (RNA; see nucleic acid), free nucleotides, and various coenzymes.
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 to form adenosine, which in turn can be bonded with from one to three phosphoric acid units, yielding the three nucleotides adenosine monophosphateadenosine monophosphate
(AMP) , organic compound composed of an adenine base, the sugar ribose, and one phosphate unit. AMP is one of the possible products of the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and is therefore important in the transfer of chemical energy during
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, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine triphosphateadenosine triphosphate
(ATP) , organic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of
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. These adenine derivatives perform important functions in cellular metabolism. Adenine is one of four nitrogenous bases utilized in the synthesis of nucleic acidsnucleic acid,
any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
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. A modified form of adenosine monophosphate is thought to be a secondary messenger in the propagation of many hormonal stimuli. Adenine is an integral part of the structure of many coenzymescoenzyme
, any one of a group of relatively small organic molecules required for the catalytic function of certain enzymes. A coenzyme may either be attached by covalent bonds to a particular enzyme or exist freely in solution, but in either case it participates intimately in
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.
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adenine

[′ad·ən‚ēn]
(biochemistry)
C5H5N5 A purine base, 6-aminopurine, occurring in ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid and as a component of adenosine triphosphate.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
This resistance of ATP for restoration is attributed to the depletion of the adenine nucleotide pool.
Moreover, in human coronary arteries, sympathetic nerves are one of the sources of adenine nucleotides and coronary vasodilation was found to be associated with the endothelial expression of E-5'-nucleotidase.
The interaction of quinacrine with adenine nucleotides. J.
Hitherto, the putative components include the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) or porin, localized in the OMM; the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) in the IMM; the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor and the Bcl-2 family proteins; the hexokinase boundtoporin; the cyclophilin-D(Cyp-D), a regulatory element in the matrix; glycogen synthase kinase-3b (GSK-3b); and cytochrome c [121-123].
Stimulation-evoked release of adenine nucleotides and nucleosides was calculated by subtracting the basal release, measured in the sample collected before stimulation, from the total release of adenine nucleotides and nucleosides determined after stimulus application.
In addition to the hormonal modulation of Sertoli cell functions, there are several reports evidencing that extracellular adenine nucleotides can modulate responses through the purinoceptors present in these cells [69-73].
The methods used for simultaneous separation of Cr compounds and adenine nucleotides generally include two types of protocols: (1) isocratic elution of these compounds in an organic solvent-free buffer followed by stepwise switch to another buffer contaning acetonitrile or methanol and (2) typical gradient elution method where Cr derivatives are eluted in isocratic conditions and adenine nucleotides by organic solvent gradient elution.
Studies by Morabito and colleagues first determined whether methotrexate induced an increase of extracellular adenosine via intracellular adenosine production or was generated extracellularly from adenine nucleotides. (6) They demonstrated that injection of a specific ecto-5'NT inhibitor, [alpha],[beta]-methylene ADP, suppressed the antiinflammatory properties of methotrexate in a murine air pouch model of inflammation, indicating that adenosine released from methotrexate treatment is derived from adenine nucleotides converted extracellularly to adenosine.
Increase in plasma levels of adenosine and adenine nucleotides after intravenous infusion of buflomedil in humans.
De novo synthesis of adenine nucleotides in different skeletal muscle fiber types.
Regardless of which model is utilized, the constraints on the diffusion of adenine nucleotides make phosphagen systems critical in the motility of many primitive-type spermatozoa.