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(hīpûr`trəfē), enlargement of a tissue or organ of the body resulting from an increase in the size of its cells. Such growth accompanies an increase in the functioning of the tissue. In normal physiology the growth in size of muscles (e.g., in an athlete as a result of increased exercise) and also the enlargement of a uterus in pregnancy are caused by hypertrophy of muscle cells. In pathology the thickening of the heart muscle from overstrain, as in hypertensionhypertension
or high blood pressure,
elevated blood pressure resulting from an increase in the amount of blood pumped by the heart or from increased resistance to the flow of blood through the small arterial blood vessels (arterioles).
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 (high blood pressure), is the result of hypertrophy. An organ subjected to extra work (e.g., the one kidney left to function after surgical removal of the other) usually compensates by enlarging; in such cases hyperplasia, an increase in the number of cells, generally accompanies hypertrophy.



an increase in the volume of a body organ or of any of its parts.

Hypertrophy in man (or in animals) may occur either as the result of the enlargement of the individual component elements of an organ (cells and tissues) or as the result of an increase in their quantity (hyperplasia). True hypertrophy and false hypertrophy are distinguished. The former includes enlargement in volume or mass of specific elements as the result of an increased functional load (so-called functional, or compensatory, hypertrophy) or disruption of the regulatory influences of the nervous and endocrine systems. Functional hypertrophy may appear in healthy persons who are occupied with physical labor, such as in athletes (“physiologic hypertrophy” of the muscles). It may also appear upon affection of a part of any organ, such as after heart failure (compensatory hypertrophy) or after the destruction of a paired organ, such as a kidney (vicarious hypertrophy). Compensation for the impaired functions occurs in all instances of functional hypertrophy. Examples of hypertrophy occurring as a result of the disruption of neuroendocrine influences include acromegaly and gynecomastia; in these cases the hypertrophy has no compensatory significance but is accompanied by considerable disturbances of function. False hypertrophy refers to enlargement of the organ as the result of excessive growth of the interstitial, most often the adipose, tissue in response to atrophy of the parenchyma (the functional tissue). Function of the organ in such cases is usually decreased.


Hypertrophy of plant organs is the result of an increase in the size of their cells. The hypertrophy may be the effect of increased synthesis of the substances of the cell membrane or cytoplasm, deposits of reserve compounds, or the development of polynucleosis or polyploidy. The causes of hypertrophy include disruption of the synthesis and metabolism of phenol compounds, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, as well as deficiency of trace elements. The condition may also be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, invertebrates, and plant parasites. It may accompany many mutations, grafts, and the effects on the plant of ionizing radiation or ultrasound. Hypertrophy is usually interconnected with hyperplasia and disruptions of tissue differentiation in the organs. In many instances (for example, when there is development of tumors or galls) hypertrophy follows cell division; after mechanical injury and physical or chemical effects, however, it is often primary. Hypertrophy is observed in higher as well as in lower plants.



Increase in cell size causing an increase in the size of an organ or tissue.


enlargement of an organ or part resulting from an increase in the size of the cells
References in periodicals archive ?
gt; Prescribe intranasal corticosteroids for patients with adenoid hypertrophy, (A)
80 children in the age group 3-10 years who attended the OPD of the Department of ENT, Medical College, Kottayam, with clinical features suggestive of chronic adenoid hypertrophy and symptoms suggestive of OSAS were selected for the study.
1,7,14) Moreover, the statement that children with AR have a higher tendency than children with NAR to suffer from obstructive adenoids has been based on the assumption that inhaled allergens--such as molds, house dust mites, or even food allergens--are transported to immunocompetent nasopharyngeal cells and thus may promote adenoid hypertrophy.
2] 16 [+ or -] 2(11-22) (c) Shwachman score 85 (65-100) (d) Endoscopic exam, % Middle meatus purulent secretion 38 Adenoid hypertrophy 18 Polyps 12 CT scan, % Maxillary opacification (a) 73 Ethmoid opacification (a) 61 Ostiomeatal complex opacification (b) 61 Note.
Values of mean platelet volume in patients with chronic tonsillitis and adenoid hypertrophy.
After removal of the rhinolith, adenoid hypertrophy was prominent on the left side (Figure 3).
All children were diagnosed with recurrent otitis media associated with adenoid hypertrophy and transverse maxillary deficiency.
X-ray soft tissue nasopharynx lateral view was done to confirm adenoid hypertrophy.
3) compared the weight and height SDS values of 29 prepubertal patients with adenoid hypertrophy with the values of 20 healthy children and found that the height and weight values of the patient group with ATH before adenotonsillectomy were lower compared to the values of the healthy control group and there was no significant difference between the weight and height SDS values of patients and the control group after operation.
From this study it is evident that in children having otitis media with effusion and coexisting adenoid hypertrophy, adenoidectomy and myringotomy is more effective than insertion of ventilation tube as a treatment option.
The important clinical risk factors associated were deviated nasal septum, upper respiratory tract infections, nasal allergy, sinusitis, chronic tonsillitis and adenoid hypertrophy.