and TJs play an important role for protecting the intestinal barrier.
1-4) As a component of cell adherens junctions
, [beta]-catenin physically interacts with the cell membrane protein, E-cadherin, to stabilize the epithelial tissues.
All cells within both epithelia are joined by adherens junctions
that are stabilized by apical actin networks.
beta]-catenin is the principal component of adherens junctions
at cell-cell contact and is anchored to the cytoskeleton to support cellular architecture and organization of the cytoskeleton.
Using the Drosophila developing leg as a model system to study apoptosis-dependent epithelium folding, we have recently shown that apoptotic cells produce a pulling force through the unexpected maintenance of their adherens junctions
that serves as an anchor to an apico-basal Myosin II cable.
Cell-cell adherens junctions
are important for maintaining tissue architecture and cell polarity and can limit cell movement and proliferation.
Under physiological conditions, endothelial cell-cell contacts and vascular endothelial barrier integrity are mediated by tight junctions, adherens junctions
, and gap junctions to regulate physiological process, especially inhibiting inflammatory cell transendothelial migration (TEM).
4,5) The cytoplasmic protein [beta]-catenin (14/[beta]-catenin, BD Biosciences, Erembodegem, Belgium) was evaluated as a first potential candidate because it is a low-molecular weight (88 kDa versus 660 kDa of thyroglobulin) peptide that is involved in adherens junctions
, epithelial contact inhibition signaling, and gene transcription.
These protective cells (human newborn foreskin shown) can exist as sheets of tissue that are held tightly together by several structures including adherens junctions
(green, blue shows cell nuclei).
Of these, the first two belong to the adherens junctions
, where the adhesion molecules cadherin and catenin are present.
Nachyline stimulates the formation of adherens junctions
, boosts keratinocytes differentiation, reinforces the cohesion and stratification of epidermis and contributes to the organization of the stratum comeum, according to Silk.
GI mucosal barrier integrity is maintained by junctional complexes between epithelial cells including tight junctions, desmosomes and adherens junctions